This edition takes as its basis the orthography of the sources. However, all contractions are written out in full. Spelling tends to follow the idiosyncrasies of the original rather than conforming to any particular standard. Spelling also tends to favour forms that reflect the orthography of the English language. However Jesu, Jesum, etc. is used in the edition even though the sources normally use Ihesu, Ihesum, etc.
Older sources tend to prefer ‘c’ to ‘t’ in some words, such as ‘leccio’ instead of ‘lectio’, for example. In this and similar cases I have normally taken the latter form. Many of the later Sarum sources display a preference of ‘c’ over ‘t’ in certain words, for example ‘leticia’ and ‘justica’ instead of ‘letitia’ and ‘justitia’. In this and similar cases I have normally taken the former form. ‘Vicia’ is normally used, rather than ‘vitia’, for ‘vices’, even though its normal meaning in Latin is ‘vetch’.
In some words ‘um’ is frequently spelled ‘un’; for example, ‘solennitate’ appears rather than ‘solemnitate’; ‘veruntamen’ is used instead of ‘verumtamen’. Of course in most of these cases the final ‘m’ or ‘n’ is represented only by a horizontal line above the vowel.
‘Michi’ and ‘nichil’ almost always appear, rather than ‘mihi’ and ‘nihil’.
‘xs’ is not normally used; ‘exultate’ rather than ‘exsultate’ for example.
As in the sources, ‘y’ often appears where one might expect ‘i’, as in ‘alleluya’. ‘y’ is often used in the edition in connection with words of Greek origin.
Double vowels, such as ‘haec’ and ‘aeterna’ are not normally found in the originals, and are not used in the edition.
‘Kyrie eleyson’ and ‘Christe eleyson’ usually appear as ‘Kyrieleyson’ and ‘Christeleyson’ and appear to be sung that way as well.
The question mark does not usually appear in the psalms. (Question marks are not necessary for the performance of the psalms, because the inflections are controlled by the psalm-tones.) Question marks are generally omitted from the psalms in the scholarly edition; but in the performing edition question marks appear in the psalms. Question marks are likewise frequently omitted from other chants, but are generally included in the edition.
In the sources, capitalization usually appears only at the beginning of sentences and quotations. The printed Latin editions favour capitalization generally following the practices of standard liturgical books such as Liber Usualis and Roman Catholic Daily Missal (1962) for example:
-names and titles of God: Deus, Dominus, Pater, Regis, Magister, Sponsus, Imperator etc; Auctor vite, celestem Regem, Princeps pacis, unigenito Filius, Sol justicie, invisibili Sacerdos, eternus Amor; Agnus Dei, Verbum Dei, Veritas, sancte Trintitas, Unitate–when considered as a complement to Trinity, Corpus Christi, (Corpus, Sanguis, depending on context), Spiritus Sanctus
-names and titles of Jesus may reflect divine and human attributes: Deum et homine
-names and titles of blessed Mary: Virgo, Genitrix, Salvatrix, angelorum Domina; beate Virginis, Regina celi, Stellam maris, Virgo Maria; as ‘a virgin’ and as mother of the man, Jesus, virgo and mater; as ‘the Virgin’ and as mother of God, Virgo, Mater; intemerata Virginitas
-titles of books: sancta Scriptura, Scriptura sacra, Novi testamenti, utirusque scriptura Testamenti, sanctum Evangelium (but evangelium referring to ‘the good news’), Actibus apostolorum, Canticis, Psalmis, but psalterium; also Letania (the Litany)
-places: Basilicam Apostolorum, Tartarus
-titles that refer to specific persons: Apostolus, Propheta, Psalmista, venerandus Baptista, and the church: catholice Matris; but
-titles in general: propheta, apostolus, levita, phariseis, scribe, saducei
-dyabolus, deceptor, tentatoris, antichristus, but Sathanas
-titles of feasts: Sancte Trinitatis, Pascha, Paschalis temporis
-races, tribes, groups: Christianorum, but paganorum, gentium
-dates: idus, kalendas, but Januarius, etc.
Stress accents have been added to spoken/sung texts in accordance with other sources and guided by the Accentuarium that often appears bound with 16th c. printed Sarum breviaries. For further discussion see the entry ‘Enclitics’ in the Topical Guide.
The mode is indicated at the beginning of each chant. In some chants where the range is very small, the definition of the mode is unclear; an editorial choice is made in each case. In some chants, particularly sequences, the ambitus encompasses both plagal and authentic ranges–and sometimes even more; again an editorial choice is made in each case.
Vertical divisions (bar lines), whether the full staff, half staff, quarter staff, or above the staff, are editorial. When a bar line above the staff appears directly above a podatus (2-note neume ascending, with one note directly above another), the breath, if taken, should be between the two notes of the podatus.
The sources use the following clefs: D, F, C, G, B-flat. The edition uses the F and C clefs, and on occasion the G clef.
An accidental in the staff maintains its effect until the end of the word, unless cancelled by another accidental (when an accidental that pertains to a given word that continues onto a following line is required, it will normally be repeated on that following line). Accidentals above the staff are editorial; those contained in square brackets are optional. Such editorial accidentals apply only to single notes, not to whole words. An accidental, whether alone or acting as a key-signature, affects only the octave in which it appears. (A small number of melodies use B-flat in the lower octave, but B-natural in the higher octave.)
It will be found that flats are often omitted from the sources when the note B occupies the space above the top line of the staff. Such omissions are not normally recorded in the edition.
Users of modern chant editions will be familiar with the custos or guide that indicates the first pitch of each subsequent line of chant. Sarum sources frequently–and this edition–omit the custos.
In the sources liquescent neumes normally represent voiced consonsants that appear at the end of syllables. In the edition all liquescent neumes have been represented with smaller note heads even though the sources usually omit the note-head itself. This draws into question the detail of the performance practice. Further, it should be understood that the notation of liquescent neumes is not consistent amongst the sources. Where one source may have a single note, another may have a liquescent, and another may have a neume of two pitches. The edition generally adopts the liquescent versions.
The English texts follow, as far as possible, existing texts from the Roman Catholic and Anglican traditions. For the Scholarly edition, the principal source is the Douay-Rheims translation of the Bible. For the Performing edition, the principal sources are the Book of Common Prayer and the King James Bible.
It will be found that in some instances the King James version of a text is unsuitable for use with the chant on account of lack adherence to the structure of the Latin original. In these cases, edited versions of the texts have been made with discretion in order to facilitate a suitable wedding of text and music. For example, in the Gradual Miserere mei Deus for Ash Wednesday, the verse of the Latin text, from the Vulgate (Ps. 56: 4), naturally divides into two parts :
Misit de celo et liberavit me : dedit in opprobrium conculcantes me.
The Douay-Rheims translation follows this structure, and is used in the edition without alteration: He hath sent from heaven and delivered me. He hath made them a reproach that trod upon me.
However, the verse of the BCP version does not divide in the same way, nor does it follow the perfect tense of the Vulgate : He shall send form heaven : and save me from the reproof of him that would eat me up.
In order to match the music and the text, I have altered the text so that it follows the structure and tense of the Vulgate: He hath sent from heaven and saved me : he hath made them a reproach that ate me up.
For non-scriptural texts, such as hymns, sequences, and prayers, recourse is made where possible to existing translations from the Roman Catholic and Anglican traditions.
Where possible, in poetic translations, I have used different translations for the Scholarly and Performing editions, simply to engage with a broader sampling of this rich heritage.