Companion to C: Sanctorale 1: December-May

{1}
November 29: Vigil of Saint Andrew.
The Sanctorale begins with the date closest to the beginning of Advent, the beginning of the church year. Advent begins on the Sunday nearest to the Feast of Saint Andrew, November 30.

The image is from the Breviary, 1531, Sanctorale:1r. As the beginning of the Sanctorale, this page often contains an especially elaborate image.

Vespers
Vespers of this vigil is also referred to as first vespers of the feast.  Vespers of the vigil is distinguished from the feast by having an independent prayer.

Ant. Unus ex duobus (after John 1:37, 40.)

{2}
Cap. Corde creditur.  This is not the common chapter for apostles.  This and the other chapters for St. Andrew are taken from the Epistle of the day

Hymn. Andrea pie
This hymn appears in only five non-Sarum sources in CANTUS; it is widespread in AH.
AH-51: 107.
The translation appears in The Order of Vespers: 82*.
Another–very loose–translation appears in The Anglican Breviary: E5.  The stanza that appears in Skinner, The Daily Service Hymnal (1864): 137, is not really a translation.

{3}
V. Dilexit Andream Dominus (after Eph. 5:2.)

Ant. Ambulans Jesus juxta mare Galilee (after Mat. 4:18-20.)

{4}
Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus, ut beatus Andreas
This is the prayer of the vigil.

Prayer. Majestatem tuam Domine suppliciter exoramus.
This is the prayer of the day.  It is used at first vespers in year E when Advent Sunday falls on the feast of St. Andrew.  In that case the previous prayer is used for the procession (for the sake of variety).

{5}
‘. . . infra vero adventum de omnibus sanctis in redeunto and. Salvator mundi. . . .’  As indicated below, the antiphon and versicle for All Saints appear here since within Advent a memorial to the Virgin has already been made.

‘Et sic fiat processio in omnibus festis sanctorum . . . quorum altaria sunt in ecclesia’.  The selection of such processions after first vespers is determined by the dedications of altars (other than the high altar) in the specific church.  See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1971):18.

At Salisbury Cathedral these would presumably be St. Andrew (the parochial altar in the north aisle of the nave), St. Nicholas, St. Stephen, St. Thomas of Canterbury, the Holy Trinity, the Holy Cross, St. John the Baptist, the Holy Relics, St. Peter, St. Mary Magdalene, St Lawrence, St. Denis and St. George, St. Michael, All Saints, St. Margaret, St. Edmund the Confessor, St. Martin, St. Katherine, the Eleven Thousand Virgins (from the latter part of the 15th c.), and the shrine altar of St. Osmund (from 1456).  There may also have been at some time altars dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, and possibly to St. Anne.  This list does not claim to be definitive, but merely representative.  Processions would presumably not be made to the altars of chantry chapels.

We may presume that the procession on St. John’s eve would have been to the altar of the apostles, and that on the Holy Innocents perhaps to the altar of All Saints (or to that of St. Stephen and the martyrs).

{6}
November 30: Saint Andrew
Inferior Double Feast

Matins
Invit. Adoremus victoriosissimum regem Christum

The antiphons at matins appear to be a later set than are typically found for this feast, replacing ‘Vidit Dominus Petrum’ etc.
The first 6 antiphons are in reverse! modal order, 6-1.

Ant.1.  Andreas apostolus dixit
In CANTUS this chant appears in only 7 sources, two of which are Sarum. It appears to date from the 13th century.

{7}
Ant. 2. Ego crucis Christi
In CANTUS this chant appears in only 12 sources, two of which are Sarum. It appears to date from the 12th century.

Ant. 3. Cunque carnifices
In CANTUS this chant appears in only 13 sources, two of which are Sarum. It appears to date from the 12th century.

{8}
Lessons. Proconsul Egeas Patras
The lessons are from the apocryphal Acts of Andrew.  tr. WR.
A translation of the Acts of Andrew may be found at New Advent, Fathers of the Church.
The lessons continue on the Octave of S. Andrew {37}.

Resp. 1. Dum perambularet Dominus (c.f. Mat. 4:18)

{10}
Resp. 2. Mox ut vocem Domini

{11}
Resp. 3. Homo Dei ducebatur
This responsory is used at vespers of the vigil.
The verse has an unusual inflection in the first phrase.

{12}
Ant. 4. Cum pervenisset beatus Andreas

{13}
Ant. 5. Antequam te ascenderet

{14}
Ant. 6. Amator tuus semper fui

{15}
Resp. 4. Doctor bonus et amicus Dei

{16}
Resp. 5. O bona crux
This text is taken from lesson 6; it also appears in The Golden Legend.  It was also a popular medieval prayer.

{18}
Resp. 6. Oravit sanctus Andreas

{19}
Ant. 7. Accedentes carnifices

Ant. 8. Omnis interea populus

{20}
Ant. 9. Tunc sanctus Andreas ait

{21}

‘. . . de eadem lectione . . .’  This phrase is used in some traditions, but not in the use of Sarum.  See for example BL-Harley MS 652 (12th c. Benedictine, St. Augustine’s, Canterbury).  However, it was apparently in use at Lincoln, as indicated in Lincoln Cathedral MS 142 and MS 158.

Homily. Audistis, fratres charissimi
Trans. WR.
This homily is also translated in David Hurst, Forty Gospel Homilies : Gregory the Great (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1990): 10.

Resp. 7. Expandi manus meas

{23}
Resp. 8. Dilexit Andream Dominus

{24}
‘. . . Gloria in excelsis Deo . . . bone voluntatis.’, Luke 2:14.
‘. . . In me sunt Deus . . . laudationes tibi.’, Ps. 55:12.

Resp. 9. Vir iste in pupulo suo

Ante laudes
V. Dilexit Andream Dominus

{26}
Lauds
Ant. 1. Salve crux preciosa

Ant. 2. Beatus Andreas orabat

Ant. 3. Non me permittas

{27}
Ant. 4. Maximilla Christo amabilis

Ant. 5. Qui persequebatur justum

{28}
Ant. Concede nobis hominem justum
Palmer, in The Diurnal:77*, gives here the antiphon Salve crux, which is in fact appointed for December 5, in the octave of St. Andrew.

Prayer. Majestatem tuam, Domine, suppliciter exoramus

Prime

{29}
Terce

Sext
Cap. Non enim est distinctio.  This chapter and the next are proper to St. Andrew.

None
Cap. Omnis quicunque invocaverit.

Second Vespers

{30}
Responsory. Vir perfecte.
In CANTUS it appears in only one non-Sarum source, F-AS 893 (Arras, Bibliothèque municipale, 893 (olim 465)). Other chant sources, if they have a responsory at second vespers, typically repeat a responsory from matins, such as ‘Dilexit Andream’.
This responsory is in metre and rhyme, 8p7pp x4, a a b b. The verse is 8p7pp x2, c c.

{31}
. . . et dicant ad singulos clericos Domine ad prosam.’  This is an invitation to the each individual clerk on each side to sing the texted portions of the prose.
Cantetur autem prosa . . . tres clerici qui V. responsorii cantaverunt . . .’
The two principal rectors, in the middle of the quire, face east; the two secondary rulers at the east end of the quire face west; in front of the seconday rulers, the three soloists (who sing the responsory verses) presumably face west towards the principal rectors.

Prose. O morum doctor egregie.
Translation © 2021 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
This prose appear in only one source in CANTUS, the ‘Penpont’ Antiphonal. That this Prose appears in the GB-AB 20541 E (after 1320) but not in GB-Cu Mm.ii.9 (13th c.)
may suggest the period during which is was officially incorporated into the Sarum Use.
As Jenifer Raub points out (‘Sarum Liturgical Printing in Tudor London’ (Phd. diss., Royal Holloway College, University of London, 2011:364), this prose and four others, Sospitati dedit egros, Inviolata integra et casta, Crux fidelis terras celis, and Eterne virgo memorie, also appear at the end of the Sarum processionals beginning in 1555.
The prose takes as its melodic basis the beginning of the repetenda, ‘Et astantes’, but the following phrase appears to be based on a transposed repetition of the pattern (with ‘tonal’ answer!). The following two phrases appear to be derived from the melody of the responsory verse, and so to lead naturally back to the repetendum.
It is worthy of note, too, that although the sources for the responsory include no B-flats, the sources indicate B-flat throughout the prose.
All of the phrases end with the same rhyme ‘-ie’, but they are only loosely metrical.

{32}
Ant. Domine Jesu Christe Magister bone

The choice of the second ending for the psalm tone reflects in particular the way that the opening motive echoes that of the ‘O’ antiphons.
The more commonly found antiphon in this position is ‘Cum [or Dum] pervenisset beatus Andreas’.

{33}
‘Quando festum sancti Andree in quinta feria . . . ‘

The earliest weekday that the Feast of St. Andrew can occur before the first Sunday of Advent is Thursday November 30, in year A.  In this case Friday December 7 will be of the Octave of St. Andrew as indicated.  The principal here is that days within the octave of St. Andrew (apart from Sundays, feasts and commemorations) are observed fully outside of Advent, but only kept as memorials within Advent.  The octave day itself is observed fully (vespers-none) in year C; in other years it is displaced by a commemoration or, in year D, by the deferral of the feast of St. Nicholas.  If commemorations were not observed, the octave of St. Andrew could be observed in years A, B, C, F and G.

In sexta feria ante Adventum

Matins
Invit. Dilexit Andream Dominus
This invitatory appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{34}
Ant. 1. Vidit Dominus Petrum et Andream

Ant. 2. Venite post me

Ant. 3. Relictis rhetibus suis

{35}
Ant. 4. Andreas Christi famulus

Ant. 5. Dignum sibi Dominus

{36}
Ant. 6. Ego si patibulum

Ant. 7. Christus me misit

Ant. 8. Salve crux que in corpore

{37}
Ant. 9. Biduo vivens

Lessons: Accedentes carnifices
This is a continuation of the Acts of Andrew.  tr. WR.
A translation of the Acts of Andrew may be found at New Advent, Fathers of the Church (newadvent.org).

{39}
Lauds
V. Annunciaverunt opera

Ant. Videns Andreas crucem

{40}
Prime
Ad vesperas . . . cum antiphonis prima die de nocturnis . . .

In year A, the only year in which a day within the octave of St. Andrew is observed with all its proper antiphons at matins, memorials of the octave on subsequent days use antiphons from matins of the feast day at vespers and lauds.  The memorial at lauds on December 6 uses Unus ex duobus.  The memorials of the octave day repeat the antiphons of the magnificat and benedictus on the day of the feast.

Quod si festum sancti Andree quavis alia feria . . . antiphona Vidit Dominus . . .’

In all other years antiphons for memorials at vespers and lauds are taken from the day within the octave, thus providing the maximum variety of antiphons within the octave of St. Andrew.  Again the antiphons appear to be one less than the required number.  The memorial at vespers on December 5 is Videns Andreas crucem.  The memorial at lauds on December 6 uses Unus ex duobus.  The memorials of the octave day repeat the antiphons of the magnificat and benedictus on the day of the feast.

{41}
December 4: The Deposition of Saint Osmund.
Simple Feast of Nine Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

(d. December 3, 1099) Bishop of Sarum. Canonized 1456/1457, from which time his deposition (burial) was celebrated officially, and his name enrolled in the Roman Martyrology. For further information, see the Translation of St. Osmund, July 16.  That his feast day is apparently the day after his death may be understood if the new day is taken to begin at sundown rather than midnight.

It would appear that in most places following the Use of Sarum this office was taken from the common of one confessor and bishop, as the Pica indicates.  However, the rubric at {828} indicates that on this day all can be said as on the Translation of St. Osmund (July 16), with appropriate change of text from ‘translation’ to ‘deposition’.  Presumably this was the practice at Salisbury Cathedral itself, but it was unlikely to have occurred elsewhere, in particular due to lack of access to the music.

Prayer. Deus cujus antiqua miracula

{42}
December 6:  Saint Nicholas
Simple Feast of Nine Lessons with Invitatory sung by three.

This office is said to have been composed by Reginold of Eichstätt (10th. c.) (David Hiley, Western Plainchant: A Handbook (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1993):274.)

First vespers
Resp. Beatus Nicholaus jam triumpho

{43}
Prose. Oportet devota.
Translation © 2021 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
This prose appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS. It appears to be a later addition to the Sarum repertoire, since it has been added in the lower margin of GB-Cu Mm.ii.9:335. However in GB-AB 20541:183v it is integral. It is clearly constructed on the melisma ‘Oportet’ that begins the repetendum of the responsory.  Indeed it forms an insertion or trope in the text “Oportet . . . committere”.
This prose is in rhyme.

{44}
Ant. O Pastor eterne

{45}
Prayer. Deus qui beatum Nicholaum

Procession
‘Deinde eat processio ad altare sancti Nicholai . . .’

Prayer. Deus bonitatis auctor et bonorum dispensator

{46}
Matins
Invit. Adoremus Regem seculorum
Translation © 2021 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
This invitatory forms a rhymed couplet.

Sciendum est itaque quod . . . ‘, St. Anne (July 26) belongs on this list; St. Anne was a late addition to the Kalendar.

Ant. 1. Nobilissimus siquidem

{47}
Ant.2. Postquam domi puerilem

Ant. 3. Pudore bono repletus Dei

{48}
Lessons. Beatus Nicholaus ex illustri
Trans. WR.

Resp. 1. Confessor Dei Nicholaus

{49}
‘. . . omnibus qui possidet : non potest meus esse discipulus.’, Luke 14:33.

{50}
Resp. 2. Operibus sanctis Nicholaus

{51}
Resp. 3. Quadam die tempestate

{52}
Ant. 4. Auro viginum incestus

Ant. 5. Innocenter puerilia

Ant. 6. Gloriam mundi sprevit

{54}
Resp. 4. Audiens Christi confessor

{55}
‘. . . Quodcunque petieritis . . . et fiet vobis.’, after John 14: 13-14.

‘. . . pontificalem . . . infulam.’
W. H. Rich Jones, Vetus Registrum Sarisberense: 182, describes the ‘infula’ as a chasuble.  Warton B. Marriot, Vestiarium Christianum (London: Rivingtons, 1868): 190 suggests that ‘infula’ had ‘nearly the meaning (in some instances) of an “official vestment,” context alone determining what the nature of that vestment might be.’  Latin dictionaries refer to it as one of the two ribbons that adorn a mitre, hence standing for the mitre itself.

{56}
Resp. 5. Qui cum audissent sancti Nicholai nomen

{57}
Resp. 6. Beatus Nicholaus jam triumpho

‘. . . tres juvenes . . .’, that is, young men from the armada.

{58}
Ant. 7. Pontifices almi divina

{59}
Ant. 8. Sanctus quidem triticum

Ant. 9. Muneribus datis neci sunt

{60}
Resp. 7. Summe Dei confessor Nicholae

{62}
Resp. 8. Servus Dei Nicholaus

{63}
Lesson ix.
Psalm 30: 2-6, is the abbreviated form of the psalm that is used daily at compline (see [370]).  The inclusion of ‘Domine’ (O Lord), not part of the Vulgate version, may have been taken from the responsory at compline in Passiontide (see [389]).

‘. . . sancte Syon . . .’, the monastery of Holy Sion, near Myra.

{64}
Resp. 9. Ex ejus tumba marmorea

{65}
Prose. Sospitati dedit
Translation © 2021 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
(In other sources this appears as ‘Sospitati reddit’.) This prose also appears in the York breviary (and other sources as well). Each line is 8p7pp, with an ending rhyme on ‘-io’.  This scheme carries into the first line of the verse.

{66}
Lauds
Ant. 1. Beatus Nicholaus adhuc puerulus
This antiphon is a rhymed couplet.

{67}
Ant. 2. Ecclesie sancte frequentans
This antiphon is a rhymed couplet.

Ant. 3. Juste et pie vivendo

Ant. 4. Amicus Dei Nicholaus

{68}
Ant. 5. O per omnia laudabilem virum

Chap. Ecce sacerdos.

Ant. Copiose charitatis

{69}
Prime

Terce

{70}
Sext
Chap. Benedictionem.  This is normally the chapter for Terce.

None
Chap. Cognovit eum Dominus.  this is normally the chapter for Sext.

Second Vespers
Ant. O Christe pietas
This melody was reused for ‘O quam suavis’ (first vespers of Corpus Christi).

{71}
Memorial of St. Andrew
Prayer. Protegat nos quesumus Domine.
The prayer for the Octave Day of St. Andrew.  It is not usual for the octave day of a feast to have a separate prayer.

{72}
December 7: The Octave of Saint Andrew.
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung buy two.
This feast has no first or second vespers because of the feasts that immediately precede and follow it.

Matins
The lessons are a continuation of the Acts of Andrew from the Feast Day.  tr. WR.

{75}
December 8: The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Minor Double Feast

Image: the Names of Mary.  The following somewhat clearer image from a French woodcut ca. 1500 contains the same symbols in a slightly different arrangement.

Symbola-Marie

The text and images include:
God in heaven
‘tota pulchra es amica mea et macula non est in te’ (Cant. 4:7)
the sun; ‘electa ut sol’ (Cant. 6:9)
a star; ‘stella maris’ (Cant. 6:9)
the moon; ‘pulchra ut luna’
a lily; ‘sicut lilium inter spinas’ (Cant 2:2)
a castle gate; ‘porta celi’
a cedar tree; ‘exaltata cedrus’
an olive tree; ‘oliva speciosa’
a castle; ‘turris David cum propugnaculis’ (Cant. 4:4)
a rose plant; ‘plantatio rose’
a mirror; ‘speculum sine macula’
a flowering plant; ‘virga Jesse floruit’ (Is. 11:1)
a well; ‘puteus aquarum viventium’ (Cant. 4:15)
a fountain; ‘fons ortorum’ (Cant. 4:15)
a walled city; ‘civitas Dei’
a fenced garden; ‘ortus conclusus’ (Cant. 4:12)

All of the musical items in the office are borrowed from the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conception’ for ‘Nativity’.  Likewise are drawn the chapters, versicles, prayers, and the last three lessons of matins.  Compline of the Conception is of Advent, whereas compline of the Nativity is of the Blessed Virgin.

First Vespers
Ant. Dei genitrix virgo
In CANTUS this chant appears in only four non-Sarum sources, all Germanic and monastic, for the Feast of the Assumption (and with the word ‘genetrix’).

GB-AB 20541:185v. indicates for the Feast of the Conception a different antiphon on the psalms, ‘Gaude mater ecclesia’ at first vespers, and different chapters, taken from Proverbs 8.  See the Appendix.

Psalms at Vespers on Feasts of the Blessed Virgin
The Sarum Use has the following:
First vespers: pss. 112, 116, 145, 146, 147.
Second vespers: pss. 109, 110, 111, 129, 131.  (This series also appears in the daily office of the Blessed Virgin on Tuesdays, when the regular series pss. 121-125 appears in the canonical vespers.)

The Hereford Use appears to follow the Sarum order of psalms.

The York Use employs pss. 109, 110, 111, 129, and 131 regularly at both vespers of the Blessed Virgin.  This is the same as the pss. at second vespers in the Sarum Use.

The Roman Use has, at both vespers: pss. 109, 112, 121, 126, 147.  This set also appears in the Sarum breviary at the more recently added feasts of the Visitation and the Presentation of the Virgin, suggesting a later importation from Roman Use.  In light of this analysis it may be appropriate on those feasts to use the Sarum psalms series instead.

The lately added Feast of Blessed Mary the Virgin of the Snows indicates ‘Psalms of our Lady’, which may well be interpreted as employing the psalms that pertain to the local usage, although in light of the above it would most likely have been originally intended to mean the Roman set, assuming that this too was a Roman importation.

The Dominican Use appears to follow the Sarum order at first vespers, but the Roman order at second vespers.

{76}
2 Ant. Beata progenies

3 Ant. Sancta Maria virgo

4 Ant. Sub tuam protectionem

5 Ant. Beata Dei genitrix

Chap. Ego quasi vitis fructificavi

{78}
Ant. Conceptio tua
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conceptio’ for Nativitas’.

Prayer. Supplicationem servorum tuorum

{79}
Matins
Invit. Corde et voce simul

1 Ant. Hodie concepta est
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘concepta’ for ‘nata’.

{80}
2 Ant. Beatissime virginis Marie
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘conceptionem’ for ‘nativitatem’.

3 Ant. Quando concepta est
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘concepta’ for ‘nata’.

The lessons at matins are borrowed from the older Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, September 8. (The first six lessons are an abridgment of those found at the Nativity of the Virgin.)  Tr. WR.  A translation of these lessons is also found in Margot Fassler, ‘Mary’s Nativity, Fulbert of Chartres, and the Stirps Jesse: Liturgical Innovation circa 1000 and Its Afterlife’ Speculum LXXV (2000):389-434.

{81}
1 Resp. Hodie concepta est
This responsory repeats the responsory of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘concepta’ for ‘nata’, and in the verse, ‘conceptionem’ for ‘nativitatem’.

{82}
2 Resp. Beatissime virginis Marie
This responsory repeats the responsory of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘conceptionem’ for ‘nativitatem’.

{83}
3 Resp. Stirps Jesse
This responsory also appears on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.
This responsory is loosely in metre (hexameters) and rhyme.
It has been suggested that in respect of the metrical structure, ‘Virgaque’ should have a stress on the first syllable, nevertheless in practice the melismatic chant obscures the effect of the stress.

{84}
4 Ant. Hodie concepta est
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘concepta’ for ‘nata’.

5 Ant. Dignum namque est

{85}
6 Ant. Benedicta et venerabilis.
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘conceptionem’ for ‘nativitatem’.

{86}
4 Resp. Conceptio gloriose virginis.
This responsory repeats the responsory of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conceptio’ for ‘Nativitas’, and in the verse, ‘conceptionem’ for ‘nativitatem’.

(87)
5 Resp. Conceptio tua Dei genitrix
This responsory repeats the responsory of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conceptio’ for ‘Nativitas’.

(88)
6 Resp. Ad nutum Domini
This responsory also appears on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.
This responsory is loosely in metre and rhyme.

{89}
7 Ant. Conceptio est hodie
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conceptio’ for ‘Nativitas’.

8 Ant. Ista est speciosa
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘conceptionem’ for ‘nativitatem’.

{90}
9 Ant. Felix namque

The image is of the Stirps Jesse, the ‘Jesse Tree’.
The Gospel homily, attributed to Bede, is usually titled ‘Prefatio totius operis premisit’. Tr. WR.
In Zéphir-François-Cicéron Caron, Catalogue des manuscrits de la bibliothèque de la ville d’Arras (Arras: Courtin, 1860):390. this item is listed in a 12th c. manuscript originating in the Abbey of mont. St.-Eloi. of various sermons as following directly after ‘Sermo domini Fulberti Carnotensis episcopi : Approbate consuedinis est apud christianos.’ as ‘Lectionis ejusdem: Prefatio totius operis premisit de quo dicturus.’ This suggests that the latter is attributed to Fulbert of Chartres rather than to Bede, and thus connects these readings with the renovation of the feast at that place.

{91}
7 Resp. Beata progenies

{92}
8 Resp. Corde et animo

{93}
9 Resp. Solem justicie
This responsory also appears on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.
This responsory is loosely in metre and rhyme.

{94}
Lauds
1 Ant. Conceptio est hodie
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conceptio’ for ‘Nativitas’.

{95}
2 Ant. Conceptio gloriose virginis
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conceptio’ for ‘Nativitas’.

3 Ant. Regali ex progenie Maria

4. Ant. Corde et animo

{96}
5 Ant. Cum jocunditate
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘conceptionem’ for ‘nativitatem’.

Ant. Conceptionem hodiernam
This antiphon repeats the antiphon of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, substituting ‘Conceptionem’ for ‘Nativitatem’.

{97}
Terce

Sext

{98}
Chap. Transite ad me

None
Chap. Qui audit me

Second Vespers
Ant. Gloriose virginis Marie

{99}
‘. . . ubi ecclesia sit dedicata de conceptione beate Marie . . .’  There seems to be a redundancy here in saying that as a patronal feast this would be a Major Double and one of the Principals, seeing that the ‘Feast of the Place’ is always a Principal Feast in the Use of Sarum.
To this point I am unaware of any medieval English churches dedicated to the Conception of Blesse Mary; in modern times, following the Roman Catholic dogma of 1854, there have been dedications, such as St. Mary Immaculate in Warwick, for example.

{100}
December 13: Saint Lucy
Simple Feast of 9 Lesons with Invitatory sung by two.

‘St. Aldhelm (d. 709) is the first writer who uses her Acts to give a full account of her life and death. This he does in prose in the “Tractatus de Laudibus Virginitatis” (Tract. xliii, P.L., LXXXIX, 142) and again, in verse, in the poem “De Laudibus Virginum” (P.L., LXXXIX, 266). Following him, the Venerable Bede inserts the story in his Martyrology.’ (Catholic Encyclopedia, newadvent.org.)

First Vespers
Ant. Lucia virgo venerabilis
This antiphon appears in only two nono-Sarum sources in CANTUS, from Jumieges and Worcester.

Ant. In tua patientia

{101}
Matins

{102)
Lessons. Cum per universam Siciliam
The lessons are largely paralleled in Legenda aurea of Jacobus de Voragine.
Trans. WR.

{103}
‘. . . Sacrificium mundum . . . tribulatione eorum.’ after James 1:27.

{104}
‘. . . Corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia mala.’ I Cor. 15:33.

‘. . . Non vos loquimini . . . loquitur in vobis.’ after Mat. 10:20; Mark 13:11.

‘ . . . quod caste viventes templum Dei sunt . . . habitat in eis.’, after I Corr. 3:16.

{105}
7 Resp. Lucia virgo

{106}
‘. . . cadent a latere meo mille . . . a dextris meis.’, after Ps. 90:7.

{107}
8 Resp. Rogavi Dominum

{108}
9 Resp. Grata facta est

{109}
Lauds
1 Ant. Orante sancta Lucia

{110}
2 Ant. Lucia virgo quid a me petis
These are the words of St. Agatha in Lucy’s dream.  (see lesson 2). Compare antiphon 5 below.

3 Ant. Per te Lucia virgo
These are the words of St. Agatha in Lucy’s dream.  (see lesson 2).

4 Ant. Benedico te Pater
This is also the fourth antiphon at lauds on the feasts ot St. Agnes and St. Cecilia.

{111}
5 Ant. Soror mea Lucia
These are the words of St. Agatha in Lucy’s dream.  (see lesson 2).  Compare antiphon 2 above.

Ant. Columna es immobilis (see lessons 7 and 8)

{112}
Second Vespers

{113}
Ant. Tanto pondere eam fixit (see lessons 7 and 8)

{114}
December 21: Saint Thomas, Apostle
Inferior Double Feast

First Vespers
Hymn. O Thoma Christi perlustrator
This hymn appears in only four non-Sarum sources in CANTUS; it is widespread in AH.
See AH-51: 108.

Ant. O Thoma Didime

{115}
Prayer. Da nobis quesumus Domine beati apostoli tui Thome

{116}
Lessons. Beatum Thomam cum reliquis discipulis
Trans. WR

‘. . . Nisi videro fixuras clavorum non credam . . .’, John 20:25.

‘. . . et omnium que in eis sunt . . .’, after Ps. 145:6.

{120}
Memorial of Advent
Ant. Nolite timere

[The saints’ days falling between December 25 and January 18 appear in the Temporale.]

{123}
January 19: St. Wulstan
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

See William of Malmesbury, Saints’ Lives: Lives of SS. Wulfstan, Dunstan, Patrick, Benignus and Indract, trans. M. Winterborrom and R. M. Thomson (Ocford: Clarendon Press, 2002): Vol. 1.

A full musical office for Wulstan appears in Wor F-160 (facs):248-252.
See Andrew Hughes, ‘British Rhymed Offices’, Susan Rankin and David Hiley, eds., Music in the Medieval English Liturgy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993):279-280.

The Sarum feast has nine lessons from the common.  Older sources such as the Penwortham Breviary and the Beford Breviary do not include proper lessons. Nevertheless, the Breviary 1516 and the Portiforia 1544 and 1556 print six short lessons, which are equivalent the lessons 1-3 of the 1531 Breviary, together with the indication that the final three lessons are to be from the exposition of the Gospel ‘Homo quidam peregre’.  (These lessons, then, cover Wulftan’s growth and sanctity, but omit the legend concerning the staff in the stone, his later years, his death, and the miracles that followed.)  In the absence of rubrics in the 1531 breviary, the implication is that proper lessons are to be read.  It would appear, therefore, that proper lessons were incorporated into Sarum breviaries in the late 15th-early 16th century, but the rubrics were never amended to include those lessons.  (If the lessons at matins are read from the common, the proper lessons could still be read in Chapter.)
Interestingly, some Hereford sources indicate nine lessons from the common, and others provide six proper lessons together with the exposition of the Gospel, Videte vigilate.  While the Hereford lessons begin the same way, they do not continue as the Sarum lessons do.

Lessons. Regnante illustri rege Anglorum Edwárdo
Trans. WR

‘. . . rege Anglorum Edwardo . . .’, King Edward the Martyr (c. 962-978), reigned 975-978; this would put Wulfstan’s birth at 975-978; however, in lesson 8 he is said to have died in 1067 at the age of 87, placing his birth at 980.  Other sources suggest that Wulfstan was born around 1008, which would be in during the reign of Aethelred (the Unready), reigned 978-1013. ( Wulfstan, uncle of St. Wulfstan, was bishop of Worcester 1002-1016.)

‘. . . in fructum centesimo . . .’ c. f. Matthew 13:8.  For background on this imagery, see Ben H. Smith, Traditional Imagery of Charity in “Piers Plowman”, (the Hague: Mouton & Co., 1966) especially 67-68.

‘Super gradus ante altare . . .’, parts of lesson 2 appear in William of Malmesbury’s Life of St. Wulfstan.

‘. . . Wulstanum privare niteretur pontificatus officio : convocato consilio . . .’, presumably the Council of Westminster, 1070.  This story first appeared in Osbert de Clare’s Life of King Edward, and received wide circulation Ailred of Riveaulx’ Vita S. Edwardi regis, 1163; it seems to be connected with the Arthurian legend.

‘. . . Gundulphus Roffensis episcopus . . . ‘, Gundulph (c. 1024-1108), Bishop of Rochester 1077-1108.

‘. . . qui sapientiam hujus mundi stultam facit . . .’, see 1 Cor. 1:20.

‘Anno autem Domini . . . octuagesimo septimo . . .’, according to this, Wulfstan was born in 980; however Wulfstan in fact died in 1095; if he were then 87 his birth would have been around 1007; his bishopric was from 1062 to 1095, a period of 33 years.

‘elapsis enim post obitum ejus annis centum, dum transferetur corpus ejus . . .’: Wulfstan was canonized in 1203, which is approximately 100 years after his death in 1095 . . .  However, if his death is reckoned as 1067, then the translation would have occurred ca. 1167.  Translations actually took place in 1198 and 1218.

{127}
Prayer. Spiritum in nobis Domine tue charitatis infunde : ut intercedente beato Wulstano

{128}
January 20: Saints Fabian and Sebastian, Martyrs
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

First Vespers
Ant. Elegit Dominus virum plebe (c. f. Luke 2:14)
When thus feast falls within Septuagesimatide the alleluya must be omitted; presumbably the antiphon concludes at ‘voluntatis’ sung as F.GA.AG.G, followed by the neuma.

{129}
Prayer. Deus qui beatos martyres tuos, Fabianum et Sebastianum

Matins
Invit. Christum suppliciter
This invitatory appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS. It is clearly related to ‘Christum supliciter regum regem veneremur’, an invitatory for St. Fusciano AH-XIII: 56.

{130}
1 Ant. Sebastianus Mediolanensium (c. f. Lesson 1)

2 Ant. Erat enim in sermone verax (from Lesson 1)

{131}
3 Ant. Christo quotidie sedulum (c. f. Lesson 1)

Lessons. Sebastianus vir Christianissimus
Trans. WR.

See PL-XVII:1022, a more extensive history, from which the Sarum lessons were presumably extracted.

Although the Feast is labelled Saints Fabian and Sebastian, the proper lessons and chants are all of St. Sebastian; only the prayer refers to both saints.  Breviarium Romanum 1529 provides one lesson for St. Fabian and five for Saint Sebastian.  (It might have been expected that in the Use of Sarum St. Fabian would be observed only as a memorial.)

1 Resp. Sebastianus Dei cultor

{133}
2 Resp. Sebastianus vir Christianissimus

{134}
3 Resp. Erat namque in sermone verax

4 Ant. Ad hoc tantum sub clamide

{135}
5 Ant. Clarissimis quotidie

6 Ant. Sebastianus vir Christtianissimus

{136}
4 Resp. Christo quotidie sedulum

{138}
5 Resp. Zoe uxor Nichostrati
According to the Golden Legend, Zoe was the wife of Nichostratus, in whose house the two young men were kept under guard.

{139}
6 Resp. Egregie Dei martyr Sebastiane

{140}
7 Ant. Ut vidit beatus Sebastianus (c. f. lesson 6)

{141}
8 Ant. Sebastianus dixit Marceliano

9 Ant. Nolite timere non separabuntur
Sebastian adressing the parents of the two youths (the Golden Legend).

{142}
7 Resp. Clarissimus viris Marceliano

{143}
‘. . . zetarius . . .’, i.e. diaetarius, a valet, or chamberlain, according to its older definition.

{144}
8 Resp. Beatus es et bene tibi erit

‘Que statim ut ecclesia gloriam pacis accepit . . .’, the Church Peace of 312 A.D.  For Lucina, see Hedveg von Ehrenheim, ‘The Titulus Lucinae and St. Lucina’, Olof Brandt, ed., San Lorenzo in Lucina: The Transformations of a Roman Quarter. Skrifter Utgivna av Svenska Institutet i Athen / Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae, 4, 61. Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Rome, 2012: 151-172.

{145}
9 Resp. Elegit Dominus virum

{146}
Lauds
1 Ant. Sebastianus Dei cultor

{147}
2 Ant. Si ego verus Christi servus sum

3 Ant. Ad hanc vocem

{148}
4 Ant. Zoe uxor Nichostrati

5 Ant. Sanctus sebastianus dixit

{149}
Ant. Beatus es et bene tibi

{150}
January 21: St. Agnes, Virgin and Martyr
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.
(c. 291–304)
See also January 28.

First Vespers
Ant. Beata Agnes in medio flammarum (see lesson 9)

{151}
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui infirma mundi eligis

Memorial of Fabian and Sebastian
Ant. Egregie Christi martyr Sebastiane
This antiphon appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS. It appears to be related to the antiphon Egregie Christi martyr for St. Firmin in F-CA 38:347r.
Presumably the psalm tone is  provided so that churches with a dedication to St. Sebastian can sing second vespers of St. Sebastian rather than first vespers of St. Agnes.  In this case this antiphon would be sung with the Magnificat, and a memorial would be made of St. Agnes, following the practice indicated on July 25 for St. James and St. Anne.

{152}
Matins
1 Ant. Discede a me pabulum mortis

2 ant. Anulo suo subarravit me
Many of the antiphons and responsories recall Isaiah 61:10.

{153}
3. Ant. Dexteram meam et collum meum cinxit

Lessons. Servus Christi Ambrosius
Trans. WR.

Another translation (from the French) with more extensive text appears in The Life of St. Agnes of Rome (PHiladelphia: P. F. Cunningham, 1856).

, A partial translation is available in Joan Mueller, A Companion to Clare of Assisi: Life, Writings, and Spirituality (Leiden: Brill, 2010):179 ff.
A French translation appears in Domenico Bartolini, Actes du Martyre de la très-noble vierge romaine sainte Agnès et du martyre des nobles Abdon et Sennen (Paris, 1864):23 ff.

{154}
1 Resp. Diem festum sacratissime virginis (see Lesson 1)

{156}

‘. . .  dextrochirio . . .’ i.e. dextrocerio, a waxen candle held in the right hand–see Usuardi Martyrologium . . . cum additionibus . . . et additionibus (Lovanii, 1568), xiiii. Cal. Junii.–or perhaps here a bracelet, considering the text of the following responsory.

2 Resp. Dexteram meam et collum meum cinxit (see Lesson 2)

‘Induit me ciclade auro texta : et immensis moralibus ornavit me.’ c.f. Ps. 44:10.

{157}
3 Resp. Induit me Dominus (c. f. Isaiah 61:10, Lesson 2).

{158}
4 Ant. christus circundedit me vernantibus

5 Ant. Induit me Dominus (see Lesson 3)

6 Ant. Posuit signum in faciem meam (see Lesson s)

{159}
4 Resp. Amo Christum in cujus thalamum (see Lesson 3)

{161}
5 Resp. Mel et lac (see Lesson 3)

{162}
6 Resp. Ipsi sum desponsata (see Lesson 3)

{163}
7 Ant. Mel et lac ex ejus ore (see Lesson 3)

8 Ant. Cujus pulchritudinem (see Lesson 3)

{164}
9 Ant. Ipsi soli servo fidem (see Lesson 3)

{165}
7 Resp. Jam corpus ejus (see Lesson 3)

{166}
8 Resp. Omnipotens adorande (see Lesson 9)

{168}
9 Resp. Stat a dextris ejus
While the chants for St. Agnes in the Sarum sources are for the most part well represented in other sources, this chant appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS.
In the York Use, the second Antiphon of Lauds has the text of this Responsory (omitting the Verse).

Lauds
1 Ant. Ingressa Agnes (see Lesson 6)

{169}
2 Ant. Mecum enim habeo custodem (see Lesson 7)

3 Ant. Ipsi sum ponsata (see Lesson 3)

4 Ant. Benedico te Pater
This is also the fourth antiphon at lauds on the feasts ot St. Lucy and St. Cecilia.

{170}
5 Ant. Congaudete mecum (see lesson 9)

Ant Stans beata Agnes (see lesson 9)

{172}
January 22: St. Vincent, Deacon and Martyr
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

First Vespers
Ant. Sacram hujus diei

Prayer. Adesto Domine supplicationibus nostris

{173}
Memorial of St. Agnes
Ant. Ecce quod cupivi (see lesson 9)
Presumably the psalm tone is  provided so that churches with a dedication to St. Agnes can sing second vespers of St. Agnes rather than first vespers of St. Vincent.  In this case this antiphon would be sung with the Magnificat, and a memorial would be made of St. Vincent, following the practice indicated on July 25 for St. James and St. Anne..

Matins
Invit. Vincentem mundum
Note theword play on the name Vincent..

{174}
1 Ant. Sanctus Vincentius a pueritia (text based on lesson 1)

2 Ant. Sanctitate quoque insignis (text based on lesson 1)

{175}
3 Ant. Valerius igitur episcopus (text based on lesson 1)

Lessons. Sanctus Vincentius a pueritia studiis litterarum traditus
The passion of St. Vincent appears to be the goriest of all depictions of martyrdom.

{176}
1 Resp. Sacram presentis diei solennitatem

{177}
2 Resp. Sanctus Vincentius Christi Martyr (text based on lesson 1)

{179}
3 Resp. Levita Vincentius (text based on lesson 3)

{180}
4 Ant. Tanto namque feliciores (see lesson 1)

{181}
5 Ant. Levita Vincentius dixit (text based on lesson 3)

6 Ant. Jam tibi fili charissime (text based on lesson 3)

{182}
4 Resp. Ecce jam in sublime agor (text based on lesson 4)

{184}
5 Resp. Assumptus ex equueleo (text based on lesson 6)

{185}
6 Resp. Christi miles gloriosus
This responsory is in rhyme and meter (8787×3).
It appears in 23 CANTUS sources (2 of which are Sarum), the earliest being E-Tc 44.2 (Toledo), ca. 1095.
This text is identical with verses 1-2 of the Lauds Hymn for this day; a highly unusual direct use of a hymn-text for a responsory.

{187}
7 Ant. Beatus Vincentius cujus jam (text based on lesson 3)
This antiphon presents interesting challenges in determining the correct intevallic structure.  The version in AS appears as untransposed Mode VII.  The version in 1519, transposed to a C finalis appears as if it were a transposed Mode V. antiphon, featuring the raised seventh at each extreme of the register.  This version also appears in BL-52359. and PEN.  Continental sources in CANTUS, however, whether transposed or not, omit the sub-tonic or leading tone below the finalis and use the finalis itself instead.

8 Ant. Nepharium tamen (text based on lesson 3)

{188}
9 Ant. Profitemur enim Christiane (text based on lesson 3)

{189}
7 Resp. Beatus Dei athleta Vincentius (see Lessons 7 and 8)

{190}
8 Resp. Agnosce o Vincenti (see Lesson 8)

{192}
9 Resp. Preciosus martyr Vincentius (see Lesson 9)
This Responsory appears in only three non-Sarum Sources in CANTUS, E-TC 44.2, F-VAL 114, and GB-WO F,160.

{193}
Lauds
1 Ant. Assumptus ex equuleo (see Lesson 6)

{194}
2 Ant. Intrepidus itaque candentis (see lessons 6-7)

3 Ant. Hinc horrendo carceris (see Lesson 8)

{195}
4 Ant. Agnosce o Vincenti (see Lesson 8)

5 Ant. Dantur ergo laudes Deo (see Lesson 8)

{196}
Hymn. Christi miles gloriosus
This text is also used for the sixth Responsory of Matins on this day.
The hymn appears in only 3 non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{197}
Ant. Egregius Dei martyr Vincentius

{199}
Ant. Beatus Vincentius applicatus tormentis (see Lesson 4)

{200}
January 25: Conversion of St. Paul
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by three.

First Vespers
Ant. Lux de celo (Acts 9:3-5)
This Antiphon appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS. (There is a reference to the same text in PL-WRu R 503:33r, but it appears as a cue only, in the Temporale.)
‘durum est tibi contra stimulum calcitrare’ is a widely know proverb; it appears in the Bacchae by Euripides (d. 406 BCE).

Cap. Saulus adhuc spirans

{201}
Hymn. Doctor egregie

Ant. Elegit Dominus virum
This Antiphon appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS. It is clearly related to 002829 for the Feast of Saints Fabian and Sebastian, but with different text at the end {128}. See especially CH-E 611:160v. where this melodic form appears with the text for St. Fabian and Sebastian.

{202}
Prayer. Deus qui universum mundum beati Pauli

Memorial of St. Prejectus
Prayer. Martyris tui Prejecti nos quesumus

Matins
Invit. Laudemus Jesum Christum
Only Sarum sources in CANTUS have this text. (CANTUS groups this Invitatory with the series ‘Laudemus Deum nostrum’.) This Invitatory is akin to ‘Laudemus Jesum Christum quia’ CANTUS 100181, which also appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS. See [7] and 1717.

{203}
Hymn. Doctor egregie

1 Ant. Saulus adhuc spirans (after Acts 9:1)

(204)
V. Paternarum traditionem (after Gal. 1:14)

The Antiphon Verses found at Matins occur in only 7 CANTUS sources, 2 of which are Sarum.

The York Breviary includes Antiphon Verses at Matins. The first and sixth differ from those of the Sarum Breviary.


Sarum Matins Verses
1 Paternarum traditionem.
2 Per totam Judeam
3 Audivit autem vocem
4 Circunfulsit eum
5 Viri autem illi
6 Prostratus est
7 Saulus autem cadens
8 Surrexit autem Saulus
9 Dixit autem Dominus

York Matins Verses
Et cum iter faceret
Per totam Judeam
Audivit autem vocem
Circunfulsit eum
Viri autem illi
Surrexit autem Saulus
Dixit autem Dominus
Abiit Ananias
Prostratus est



2. Ant. Ibat igitur Saulus.

V. Per totam videam

{205}
3 Ant. Et subito circunfulsit eum (after Acts 9:3-4.)
This Antiphon appears in only six non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

V. Audivit autem vocem (after Acts 9:4).

{206}
Lessons. Saulus adhuc spirans
Hrabanus Maurus Homilia CXI. In Natali Sancti Pauli.
Trans. WR.

‘Saulus adhuc spirans . . . in discipulos Domini.’, Acts 9:1.

‘. . . Benjamin lupus rapax . . . dividet spolia.’, Gen. 49:27.

1 Resp. Saulus adhuc spirans (text based on lesson 1)
This Responsory appears in only eight non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

Lesson 2.
‘Saulus adhuc spirans . . . sacerdotum in Damascum . . .’, Acts 9:1.

‘. . . ut quoscunque inveniret . . . in Hierusalem . . .’, after Acts 9:2.

‘Et dum iter facerert contigit . . . appropinquaret Damasco.’, Acts 9:3.

{208}
2 Resp. Ibat igitur Saulus
This Responsory appears in only seven non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

Lesson 3.
‘Et subito circunfulsit eum . . . quid mer persequeris ?’, Acts 9:3-4.

‘Quia quod uni . . . me hoc scito passurum.’ c. f. Mat. 28:40.

‘Et ille, Quis es, Domine . . . persequeris infidelis.’, Acts 9:5.

‘Sed surge et ingredere civitatem . . . oporteat facere.’, Acts 9:7.

‘Et ita erat tribus diebus . . . neque bibit.’, Acts 9:9.

{209}
3 Resp. A Christo de celo vocatus

{210}
4 Ant. Saule Saule quid me persequeris ? (Acts 9:4)

V. Circunfulsit eum lux (Acts 9:3-4)

{211}
5 Ant. Saulus autem tremens (Acts 9:6-7)

V. Viri autem illi (Acts 9:7)

{212}
6 Ant. A Christo de celo vocatus

Lesson 4.
‘Ananias quidam discipulus . . . et signa eum caractere meo.’, after Acts 9:10-12.

‘Multa enim patietur pro nomine meo.’, after Acts 9:16.

‘. . . Domine audivii a multis . . . in Hierusalem.’, Acts 9:13.

‘. . . Vade, quoniam vas . . . et principibus terra.’, after Acts 9:15.

{213}
4 Resp. Vade Anania (see Acts 9:11, 15-16)
This Responsory appears in only eight non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

Lesson 5. (after Acts 9:20-21)
‘. . . Paulus pro Christo quinquies quadragenas una minus . . .’, after 2 Cor. 11:24.

{214}
5 Resp. Ingressus Paulus in synagogas
This Responsory appears in only nine non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{215}
6 Resp. Magnus sanctus Paulus
The first part of this text is also used for the Alleluya this day.

There are twelve thrones for the apostles. The twelfth throne either belongs to Matthias, who was the replacement for Judas selected by lot, or to Paul, chosen vessel of the Lord.

{216}
7 Ant. Viri autem qui comitabantur (Acts 9:7)
This Antiphon appears in only six non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

V. Saulus autem cadens (after Acts 9:4, 8)

{217}
8 Ant. Ad manus autem illum (after Acts 9:8-9)
This Antiphon appears in only thirteen non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

V. Surrexit autem Saulus (Acts 9:8)

9 Ant. Vade Anania (after Acts 9:11, 15)

V. Dixit autem Dominus in visu (Acts 9:10)

{218}
Sermon. Grandis fiducia.
A Translation of this Lesson appears in Thomas P. Scheck, St. Jerome: Commentary on Matthew (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2008):221-222.
‘. . . Relinquimus omnia.’, Mat 19:27.

‘. . . Et secuti sumus te.’, Mat. 19:27.

‘Jesus autem dixit illi . . . duodecim tribus Israel.’, Mat. 19:28.

‘Hoc enim et Socrates . . . ‘, other sources of Jerome’s sermon have ‘Crates’.  Presumably Crates of Thebes (c. 365 – c. 285 BC), a stoic, noted for giving away his money and living a life of poverty on the streets of Athens.  ‘Jerome is still following Origen, who also reports the example of Crates’, Thomas P. Scheck, trans., St. Jerome: Commentary on Matthew (Fathers of the Church CXVII) (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2008):221.  Nevertheless, Socrates himself embraced poverty and refused to accept money for his work.

‘. . .  Qui secuti estis me . . .’, Mat 19:28.

‘In regeneratione . . . majestatis sue . . .’, Mat. 19:28.

7. Resp. Tu es vas electionis.  (after Acts 9:15)

{219}
Lesson. Duodenario quippe numero
A translation of this lesson and the first part of the next appears in Augustine, The City of God Against the Pagans (Loeb Classical Library 416), Book XX: 268 ff.

‘. . . Nescit quia angelos judicabimus?’, after 1 Cor. 6:3.

‘ . . . centum quinquaginta tribus piscibus . . . ‘ c. f. John 21:1-14.

‘. . . quinque virginibus . . .’, c. f. Mat. 25:1-13.

‘. . . quinque fratribus . . .’,  c. f. Luke 16:28.

‘. . . septem [milia] virorum . . .’, c. f. 1 Kings 19:18.

‘Et omnis qui reliquerit domum . . .et vitam eternam possidebit.’, Mat. 19:29.

{221}
Resp. Celebremus conversionem
The text of the verse is expanded from the conclusion of the common officium for saints, Gaudeamus omnes.
This Responsory appears in only eight non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{222}
Lauds
1 Ants. Saulus qui et Paulus (after Acts 9:19, 22)

V. Ostendens quia hic est Christus (after Acts 9:22)
The Antiphon Verses at Lauds generally appear in a greater number of CANTUS sources, although the fourth appears in only 7 CANTUS sources, 2 of which are Sarum.

The York Breviary includes Antiphon Verses at Lauds, 2 of which differ from those in the Sarum Breviary.


Sarum Lauds Verses
1 Ostendens quia hic
2 Et abiit Annanias
3 Fuit autem cum discipulis
4 Inter apostolos
5 Stupebant autem omnes

York Lauds Verses
Stupebant autem omnes
Ostendens quia hic
Inte apostolos
In regeneratione
Ut digni efficiamur


2 Ant. Saule frater (Acts 9:17)

V. Et abiit Ananias (Acts 9:17)

{223}
3 Ant. Sub manu continuo (Acts 9:18-19)
This Antiphon appears in only thirteen non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

V. Fuit autem cum discipulis (Acts 9:19)

{224}
4 Ant. Prostratus est sevissimus
This Antiphon appears in only six non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

V. Inter apostolos

5 Ant. Ingressus Paulus in synagogas (Acts 9:20, 22)

V. Stupebant autem omnes (Acts 9:21)

{225}
Ant. Celebremus conversionem
This Antiphon appears in only eleven non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

Ant. Cum autem complacuit (after Gal 1:15)

{229}
January 27: St. Julian
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

Lessons.  Beatus Julianus romana generositate clarissimus
Trans. WR

These lessons are extracted from the Vita S. Juliani by Lethald, monk of the abbey at Micy, see PL:137:785-787.

‘. . . primus apostolus Cenomannice urbis . . .’, the Auleerci Cenomani.  Their chief town was Vindinum or Suindinum (corrupted into ‘Subdinnum’), afterwards Civitas Cenomanorum (Le Mans).

‘. . . fontem placuti Centonomium vocitari . . .’  La Province du Maine VIII (1900):180. provides a detailed footnote that includes the following explanations: ‘perfecta consolatio’; ‘blanche fontaine’ and ‘fontaine de bonheur celeste’.

‘. . . extra sabbbatum . . .’  Saturdays will always prefer the Commemoration of the Blessed Virgin over a feast of three lessons before Lent begins.

{230}
‘[Capitulum. Ecce sacerdos magnus. . . ]  Crede michi [132] indicates at Lauds, Chapter, Benedictionem, but would only be true if the feast used the lessons of the common–as it may have done at some places and at some times.  See Brev:[820].

{231}
January 28: St. Agnes Second Feast
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

Antiphone et psalmi feriales.’  There seems to be no particular reason why the antiphon is from the feria, rather than ‘Hec est virgo prudens’ from the Common of Virgins.

Lessons. Christi virgines solam virginem matrem
Trans. WR.

{234}
January 30: St. Bathild
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
In septuagesimatide this feast is sung ‘cum nocturno’.

{235}
February 1: Saint Brigid
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
In septuagesimatide this feast is sung ‘cum nocturno’.

See Sabine Baring-Gould and John Fisher, The Lives of the British Saints I (London: Charles J. Clark, 1907):264-285.

Prayer.  Sancte Brigide virginis tue

Lessons. Sancta itaque Brigida, quam Deus presecrivit.
Trans. WR

{237}
February 2: The Feast of the Purification
Major Double Feast
The first four Antiphons of First Vespers are repeated from Lauds of the Feast of the Circumcision, January 1.

{238}
5 Ant. Magnum  hereditatis mysterium
This antiphon also appears at the Magnificat at second vespers of the Circumcision.  It is very rare for an antiphon on the Benedictus or Magnificat to be used elsewhere on the psalms.   In CANTUS, the only other assignment of this antiphon to the Purification is NL-Uu 406.  (Frequently to be found at this spot is Hodie beata virgo Maria, 003089, which is not in the Sarum repertoire.)

Chap. Ecce ego mitto angelum meum

Resp. Videte miraculum matris Domini

Thomas Tallis composed a six-part setting of this responsory in which the tenor cantus firmus is not extant, but can be reconstructed, and has been reconstructed in modern editions.  William Mundy composed a five-part setting, of which the tenor is lost, but has been reconstructed in modern editions.

{240}
Hymn. Quod chorus vatum
Text attributed to Rabanus Maurus (ca.776-856).
Trans. (Performing ed.) G. H. Palmer, The Hymner:73.
Trans. (Scholarly edition), T. A. Lacey, The English Hymnal, #208
The translation by G. H. Chambers, Lauda Syon:60 does not follow the original metre.

{241}
V. Responsum accepit Symeon (after Luke 2:26)

Ant. Homo erat in te (Luke  2:25)

The Vulgate has ‘consolationem’, not ‘redemptionem’.

{242}
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus majestatem tuam supplices

Compline

Ant. Virgo verbo concepit

{243}
Ant. Glorificamus te Dei genitrix

Matins
Invit. Ecce venit ad templum

{244}
Hymn. Quem terra ponthus ethera
Text ascribed to Venantius Fortunatus (c. 530–c. 600/609), Bishop of Poitiers.
The Hymn ‘O gloriosa femina’ {267} is a continuation of this Hymn.
Trans. (Performing edition) J. M. Neale, The Hymnal Noted, # 93 (or 88).
Trans. (Scholarly edition) J. D. Chambers, Lauda Syon, 56.

The Anglo-Saxon Durham Hymnal and Canterbury Hymnal contain an additional verse after verse two: Mirantur ergo secula, / Quod angelus fert semina, / Quod aure Virgo concepit / et corde credens parturit.’
J. D. Chambers, Lauda Syon, Part II, page 56, provides a translation:  ‘The nations of the world admire, / An Angel’s words the germ inspire ; / A Virgin by her ear conceives, / And brings forth that her heart believes.

{245}
The 9 antiphons of matins are not the common antiphons used in the Latin church (which are normally taken from the Feast of the Assumption of Mary), but a later, more elaborate series that can be seen as part of a renewed late medieval devotion to Mary. Indeed ‘Queen of Heaven’ is conspicuous in the 2nd antiphon, ‘reparatrix’ in the 4th antiphon and ‘Theotokos’, in the 9th antiphon. Apparently Marian devotion ‘underwent a notable development in the Cistercian reform movement and in the orders of evangelical apostolic life that arose from the beginning of the twelfth century onwards.’ (Servants of the Magnificat: The Canticle of the Blessed Virgin and Consecrated Life (Rome : General Curia OSM, 1996:62).)
Besides Sarum, they appear as a series (in modal order) only in D-AAM (Aachen) and I-Far (Florence) (at the Assumption) in CANTUS. They are also found in the York and Hereford Breviaries. The second antiphon also appears in F-R 248 from Jumieges (for the Assumption), and the sixth and ninth appear in Worcester F-160 (the former for the Nativity of the Virgin, and the latter for both the Nativity and the Purification of the Virgin). This series of antiphons thus appears to be primarily an English tradition.

The 9 antiphons clearly make a group, as they are in modal order. Antiphons 2-6 at matins appear to be loosely in meter, but not in rhyme. The seventh appears to be in rhyme. As indicated below, the antiphons (except the last) make reference to the particular Psalms to which they are attached.

1 Ant. Specialis virgo (cf. Ps. 8:2, 6.)

{246}
2 Ant. Celi reginam Maria (cf. Ps. 18:2, 6; Mal. 4:2.)

3 Ant. Virgo creatoris celorum (cf. Ps. 23:3, 4.)

{247}
Lessons. Exultent virgines
Augustine, SErmon370, De nativitate Domini, begining at 2: “Exsultent ergo virgines”.
Trans. WR.

Another English translation appears in Edmund Hill, The Works of Saint Augustine: Sermons III/10 (341-400) (Hyde Park, New York: New City Press, 1995):308-311. The attribution to Augustine has been questioned (see Hill, above).

{248}
1 Resp. Adorna thalamum tuum

Lesson 2
‘. . . quod non esset visurus . . . vidisset Christum.’, after Luke 2:26.

‘. . . Ecce virgo concipiet . . . nomen ejus Emmanuel.’, cf. Is. 7:14; Mat. 1:23.

‘. . . quod interpretatur nobiscum Deus.’, Mat. 1:23.

{249}
2 Resp. Postquam impleti sunt dies

‘. . . Multi justi et prophete . . . et non audierunt.’, Mat. 13:17.

‘. . . non gustaret mortem . . . Christum Dominum.’, Luke 2:26.

{251}
3 Resp. Obtulerunt pro eo

4 Ant. Gratia celestis reparatrix (cf. Ps. 44:3; III Reg. 10:18.)
It would appear from the musical seeting that final word, ‘condecorat’ is intended to be accented on the penultimate syllable, but this is incorrect according to standard Latin stress.

{252}
5 Ant. Sanctificans Dominus templum (cf. Ps. 45:5.)

{253}
6 Ant. Aula Maria Dei (cf. Ps. 86:2; Is. 54:11.)

‘. . . a fine usque ad finem . . . disponens omnia suaviter.’, Sap. 8:1.

‘. . . Nunc dimittis . . . in pace.’, Luke 29.

‘Accepit ergo eum Symeon . . . salutare tuum’, see Luke 2:28-30.

‘Salutare Dei . . . ex salutare ejus.’, Ps. 96:2.

{254}
4 Resp. Symeon justus et timoratus

Lesson 5: Et ecce homo erat in Hierusalem.
Ambrose, Expositions on Lue, Book 2; see PL XV:1655
Trans. WR.

‘Et ecce homo erat . . . expectans consolationem Israel.’, Luke 2:25.

‘Sciebat enim quia beati oculi wui eum viderent.’, c. f. Mat. 13:16; Luke 10:23.

{256}
5 Resp. Responsum acceperat Symeon

‘. . . in ruinam et resurrectionem plurimorum . . .’, after Luke 2:34.

‘Et tuam (inquit) . . . pertransibit gladius.’, Luke 2:35.

‘Vivum enim . .  gladio acutissimo . . .’, c. f. Heb. 4:12.

‘. . . prophetaverat copulatio conjugio . . .’, i.e. John the Baptist.

‘. . . duos quadragesime . . .’, a mysterious number; in Milan Lent lasted 42 days; 42 x 2 = 84.

{258}
6 Resp. Videte miraculum matris Domini

{259}
7 Ant. Psallite cantantes (cf. Ps. 95:1.)

8 Ant. Exultet tellus letentur (cf. Ps. 96:1.)

{260}
9 Ant. Ave o Theotocos

Lessons from a Homily of the Venerable Bede: Solennnitatem nobis hodierne celebritatis
Trans. WR
This sermon is not among the usual number of Bede’s works; nor is it frequently to be found.  It does appear in the Breviary of Dublin Cathedral.

‘. . . et hominis primogenitum quinque siclis argenti debere redimi.’, c. f. Num. 18:15.

{261}
7 Resp. Cum inducerent puerum Jesum

‘Et ut darent . . . aut duos pullos colombarum.’, Luke 2:24.

{263}
8 Resp. Suscipiens Jesum in ulnas suas

‘Et ut darent . . . duos pullos columarum.’, Luke 2:24.

{264}
9 Resp. Gaude Maria virgo
Compare this responsory at second vespers {275}

Palmer, in the Order of Vespers:110*, abbreviates the Verse, omitting the reference to the Jews.

A six-part setting was composed by John Sheppard (c. 1515-1558).

This responsory is quoted by Thomas Aquinas in Summa Theologiae III, question 30, article 2.

{265}
V. Responsum accepit Symeon (Luke 2:26)

Lauds
1 Ant. Simeon justus et timoratus

{266}
2 Ant. Responsum accepit Symeon

3 Ant. Accipiens Symeon puerum

{267}
4 Ant. Nunc dimittis Domine servum

5 Ant. Viderunt oculi mei.
Amongst non-Sarum sources in CANTUS, this Antiphon appears only in E-Tc 44.1 and GB-WO F.160.

Hymn. O gloriosa femina
Text ascribed to Venantius Fortunatus (c. 530–c. 600/609).
This hymn is a continuation of the Matins Hymn, ‘Quem terra ponthus’, {244}.

{268}
V. Suscepimus Deus misericordiam tuum (Ps. 47:10)

Ant. Senes puerum portabat

Prime

Terce

{269}
Resp. Sancta Dei genitrix

Resp. Sancta Dei genitrix

{270}
Resp. Sancta Dei genitrix . . . alleluya
This Responsory appears only in seven non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

Sext

{272}
Chap. Ipse enim quasi ignis

Resp. Post partum virgo

Resp. Post partum virgo . . . alleluya
This Responsory appears only in seven non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{273}
None
Chap. Et conflabit eos

Resp. Speciosa facta es

{274}
Resp. Speciosa facta es
This Responsory appears only in three non-Sarum sources in CANTUS, F-AS 893, GB-WO F.160, and TR-Itks 42.

Second Vespers

{275}
Resp. Gaude gaude gaude Maria
This special opening appears to be limited to Sarum sources.

{276}
Prose. Inviolata integra et casta
This is one of the most popular of all medieval proses. It even finds a place in modern chant books (Liber Usualis:1861). In CANTUS it appears in 16 sources, 2 of which are Sarum, and a third is Worcester. This prose is also found in the York Breviary. It clearly takes both its text and its melodic cue from the final line of the responsory. Each line of text end with the vowel ‘a’.

{278}
Sequence. Letabundus exultet fidelis chorus
Dom Gueranger (The Liturgical Year: Christmas, Vol 1:246) notes that this sequence is to be found in all the Roman-French Missals and that it dates back at least to the 11th century.
In the Sarum Rite this sequence appears foremost at the nass on the fourth day in the Octave of the Assumption. Its use at the Feast of the Purification is unique to Sarum in CANTUS. (Here is is only used when the Purification falls before Septuagesima). (The only other occasions in the Sarum Rite where a sequence takes the place of a hymn are Compline of Pentecost and the three following days, and the Feast of the Holy Name.) So far as I have seen, among Sarum Office sources it appears only in the printed breviaries and antiphoner. Despite its popularity, it appears in only 2 CANTUS sources.
This sequence has a strong rhythm in which the lines are typically 7pp7pp4p.
The sequence was retained in the Dominican Rite at the Third Mass of Christmas Day, at Epiphany, and at the Feast of the Purification. [It is also apparently to be found in Carmelite Missals.]
This sequence appears in English translation as ‘Come rejoicing’, in The English Hymnal:22, both with the original chant and with a stirring melody by Nicholas Gatty, newly composed for The English Hymal.
Another translation, by J. M. Neale, appears in The Hymnal Noted: #94.

{279}
V. Suscepimus Deus (Ps. 47:10)

Ant. Cum inducerent puerum Jesum

{282}
February 3: St. Blaise
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

Lessons. Sanctus Blasius toto vite sue tempore
This text seems to appear only in Sarum sources.
Trans. WR

‘. . . in Sebasta Capodocie civitate . . .’, in modern times, Sivas, Turkey.

‘. . . in montem qui vocatur Argei . . .’, or Argeos, now known as Mount Erciyes, Turkey.

‘. . . et octoginta octo viros perdidit . . .’, pagans who perished by drowning after daring to try to walk on water.

‘. . . una cum duobus illis puerulis.’, sons of a woman converted to Christianity.

‘. . . sed et sicut vidue illi orasti faciam . . .’, this is the widow who fed the saint in prison with her pig.  In gratitude Blaise promised her great prosperity if she would light a candle each year  in the church named for him.  (See The Golden Legend.)

{285}
February 5: St. Agatha
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

First Vespers
Ant. Agatha virgo sacra nobili
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS, A-Gu 29, and F-R 248.

Prayer. Deus qui inter cetera potentie tue

{286}
Matins
Invit. Christum venerantes
This Invitatory appears also in the Common of Virgins and on the Feast of St. Cecilia.

1 Ant. Beata Agatha Quintiano (see lesson 2)
This Antiphon appears in only one non-Sarum source in CANTUS, F-R 248.

{287}
2 Ant. Ancilla Christi sum (see lesson 2)

3 Ant. Summa ingenuitas (see Lesson 2)

Lessons. Quintianus proconsul Sicilie
This text seems to appear only in Sarum sources.
Trans. WR.

{288}
1 Resp. Agatha letissime

{289}
2 Resp. Dum ingrederetur beata Agatha

{290}
3 Resp. Beata Agatha ingressa carcerem
The transposition of Mode I in this manner is quite unusual.

{291}
4 Ant. Agatha sancta dixit

{292}
5 Ant. Si ignem adhibeas

6 Ant. Si plagas et verbera

{292}
Ant. Si plagas et verbera
This Antiphon appears in only one non-Sarum source in CANTUS, F-R 248.

{293}
4 Resp. Quis es tu qui venisti ad me

{294}
5 Resp. Medecinam carnalem
While most of the Sarum Responsories for St. Agatha are part of the general Latin corpus, this one is not. It appears in only ‘R’ of the CAO concordances, and in only 29 non Sarum Sources in CANTUS, whereas the other Responsories appear in more than twice that number of CANTUS sources.

{295}
6 Resp. Vidisti Domine et expectasti

{296}
7 Ant. Nisi diigenter perfeceris (see lesson 3)

{297}
8 Ant. Vidisti Domine agonem meum

9 Ant. Propter fidem castitatis

{298}
7 Resp. Ipse me coronavit

{300}
8 Resp. Ego autem adjuta

{301}
9 Resp. Gaudeamus omnes in Domino
This text–as far as the verse–is taken from the familiar officium ‘Gaudeamus omnes in Domino’, with the substitution of ‘gratulantur laudantes’ for collaudant’.

{302}
Lauds
1 Ant. Quis es tu qui venisti ad me

{303}
2 Ant. Medicinam carnalem (see lesson 5)

3 Ant. Gratias tibi ago Domine (see lesson 6)

{304}
4 Ant. Benedico te Pater Domini mei
Compare the fourth antiphon of Lauds for Sts. Lucy, Agnes, and Cecilia.

5 Ant. Qui me dignatus est (see lesson 6)

{305}
V. Adducentur regi virgines post eam

Ant. Paganorum multitudo (see lesson 9)

Prime

{306}
Terce

Sext

None

Second Vespers
V. Adducentur regi virgines

Ant. Agatha letissime (see lesson 3)

{308}
February 6: Saints Vedast and Amandus
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
In septuagesimatide this feast is sung ‘cum nocturno’.

The first two Lessons concern Amandus, the third, Vedast.
Trans. WR.

See Sparrow Simpson, ‘St. Vedast’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association XLII (1887): 56-81 (esp. 76-81).
See also Sparrow Simpson, The Life and Legend of St. Vedast (London, 1896).

‘Centum Cellae’, Civitavecchia, near Rome.

Prayer, Adesto Domine populo tuo

Lessons. Amandus igitur sanctissimus

‘. . . regem Lodovicum . . .’, Clovis I (ca. 466-511), King of the Franks

‘. . . Attrabate civitate . . .’, the city of Arras.

{310}
February 10: Saint Scholastica
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
In septuagesimatide this feast is sung ‘cum nocturno’.In quadragesima this feast is only a memorial.

Prayer. Deus qui beate Scholastice
The missal gives a different version of this prayer.

Lessons. Soror beati Benedicti
Trans. WR.

A translation of these Lessons appears at the OSB site.
Another translation appears in Saint Gregory the Great : Dialogues (The the Fathers of the Church XXXIX), trans. Odo John Zimmerman, O.S.B. (Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 1959):102-104.

{313}
February 14: St. Valentine
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
In septuagesimatide this feast is sung ‘cum nocturno’.In quadragesima this feast is only a memorial.

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui beati Valentini

Lessons. Audiens quidam scolasticus
This text seems to appear only in Sarum sources.
Trans. WR.

The word ‘presbyteri’ appears to be incorrect. Elphinstone, in the Aberdeen Breviary adds ‘episcopi’ to Valentine’s name in the Kalendar, and omits ‘presbyteri’ in the Lesson. This is of some import, as there is confusion amongst two or three Saint Valentines associated with February 14. See F. C. Eeles, ‘Which St. Valentine is commemorated in the Prayer Book Kalendar?’, Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society V (1905): 158-162.

‘. . . Terracensis civitas . . . ‘, Ternacensis, Terni, Umbria.

(315)
February 16: Saint Juliana
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui infirma mundi elegis
The prayer begins in the same was as that of St. Agnes.

Lessons. Tempore illo erat quidem senator nomine Eleusius.
Trans. WR.

These lessons are abstracted from anonymous Acts [of Juliana].  (See Johannes Bollandus and Godefridus Henschenius, eds., Acta Sanctorum, Februarius, Tom. I I (Antwerp, 1658): 873-7.)  Trans. D. G. Calder and M. J. Allen, ‘The Life of St. Juliana‘, Sources and Analogues of Old
English: Major Latin Texts in Translation (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1976).

‘. . . Puteolanum . . .’, Puteoli, Pozzuoli, Campania.

{318}
February 22: St. Peter’s Chair
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by three.

This Feast shares the following chants with the Feast of Saint Peter in Chains, August 1:
Solve jubente, antiphon on the psalms at vespers.
Tu es pastor ovium, antiphon on Magnificat at vespers.
Quodcumque ligaveris, ninth responsory at matins.
Quodcumque ligaveris, antiphon on Benedictus at lauds.
The latter two are also shared with the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, June 29.

First Vespers
Ant. Solve jubente Deo

Chap. Petrus apostolus Jesu Christi electis

Hymn. Jam bone pastor

{319}
V. Tu es Petrus (Mat. 16:18)

Ant. Tu es pastor ovium

Prayer. Deus qui beato Petro apostolo tuo collatis clavibus

{320}
Si hoc festum in xl. evenerit . . .’ This rubric in fact applies to all feasts falling between Ash Wednesday and Maundy Thursday; only Sundays are excepted.  In this case ‘xl.’ signifies the season beginning at Ash Wednesday, not the season beginning with the first Sunday in Lent.  See also the Annunciation, March 25.

Matins
Invit. Pastori summo jubilemus
This Invitatory is in metre, 5p9p 5p8p, and rhyme, ab ab. In CANTUS it appears in 7 non-Sarum sources. It is also found in the York Breviary.

Hymn. Jam bone pastor

{321}
The Antiphons of Matins for a series in modal order. In CANTUS they occur only in two or three non Sarum sources, generally the same sources as found for the series of Matins Antiphons at the Purification (February 2).
York Use follows the same list for the first 8 Antiphons, but has ‘Solve jubente’ for the ninth.
The Antiphons are in hexameters, but not in rhyme.

It is surprising that much of the liturgy for this day comes from the Common of Confessors (as in the Breviarium Romanum, 1568), seeing that proper Responsories for Matins are found in other traditions.

Ant. Pontificalis apex
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

1 Ant. Hic super excelse
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

2 Ant. Hic super excelse

{322}
3 Ant. Antiochena polis
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

Lessons from a sermon of Augustine. Institutio festivitatis hodierne
This sermon is doubtfully attributed to Augustine,16th Sermon on the saints.
Trans. WR.

A partial translation (lessons 1 and 2) appears in The Anglican Breviary:E101 and in the Roman Breviary I (1937):606.

Thomas Alexander Lacy, ‘Cathedra Petri’, Catholicity: Consciones ad Clerum (London: A. R. Mowbray, 1914):117-133. provides interesting context.

‘. . . Tu es Petrus . . . ecclesiam meam.’, Mat. 16:18.

‘. . . Exaltent eum in ecclesia . . . laudent eum.’, Ps. 106:32.

{324}
4 Ant. Hujus amore Deus
This Antiphon appears in only one non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

5 Ant. Pande tuis celos
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{325}
6 Ant. Sydera scansurus
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{326}
7 Ant. Qui regni
This Antiphon appears in only three non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{328}
8 Ant. Hic celi terreque
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

9 Ant. Primus vocatione
This Antiphon appears in only two non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{328}
Lessons from a Homily of the Venerable Bede. Non quasi nesciens sententiam
Bede, Homilies 27. (Complete works (1843) V:193, excerpt begins on 194.
Trans. WR

‘Quem inquit dicunt homines esse Filium hominis ?’, Mat. 16:13.

‘Respondens Symon Petrus dixit, Tu es Christus Filius Dei vivi.’, Mat. 16:16.

‘Simulachra gentium . . . et non loquentur . . .’, Ps. 113:12; Ps. 134:15.

‘. . . quia ipse est qui fecti nos’, see Ps. 94:6.

‘Respondens autem Jesus dixit, Beatus es Symon Bariona.’, Mat 16:17.

‘Beatus es (inquit) Symon Bariona . . . filius columbe.’, Mat. 16:17.

‘. . . Estote prudentes . . . sicut columbe.’, Mat 10:16.

‘. . . Dominus possedit me . . . a principio.’, Prov. 8:22.

{330}
9 Resp. Quodcumque ligaveris (Mat. 16:16-19)
The V. (based on Matthew 16:16-18) seems to have been influenced by a sense of metre and rhyme.  While the verse-melody begins like the usual Mode I verse, the continuation is different; consequently the V. ‘Gloria Patri’ verse seems unusual in that its first half has the standard melody, but the conclusion is different.

{331}
V. Exaltent eum in ecclesia plebis (Ps. 106:32)

Lauds
The York use provides five proper Antiphons for the psalms at Lauds.

{332}
Ant. Quodcunque ligaveris super terram

Prime

Terce

{333}
Sext

None

Second Vespers
It is remarkable that the common elements of second vespers are drawn from the common of confessors rather than from the common of apostles.

{334}
February 24 (February 25 in leap years): Saint Matthias
Inferior Double Feast

First Vespers
Hymn. Mathia juste

V. In omnem terram

{335}
Prayer. Deus qui beatum Mathiam apostolorum tuorum

Matins
Lessons. Dum preclara beati Mathie apostoli festivitas
This legend seems only to appear in Sarum sources.
Trans. WR.

On account of their number symbolism, these lessons appear in Berno Augiensis, De consona tonorum diversitate, Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum, 3 vols., ed. Martin Gerbert (St. Blaise: Typis San-Blasianis, 1784; reprint ed., Hildesheim: Olms, 1963), 2:114–24.

‘. . . In pace factus est . . . in Syon.’, after Ps. 75:3.

‘. . . Discite a me, quia mitis sum et humilis corde.’, Mat. 11:29.

‘Fiat habitatio (inquit) ejus . . . accipiat alter.’, after Ps. 68:26.

‘. . . Euge serve bone . . . intra in gaudium Domini tui.’, Mat. 25:21, 23.

‘. . . Beati qui vident que vos videtis . . .’, after Luke 10:23.

‘. . . Sicut audivimus . . . in monte sancto ejus.’, Ps. 47:9, 2.

‘. . . Beati qui habitant in domo tua . . . laudabunt te.’, Ps. 83:5.

‘. . . Dominus pars hereditatis mee . . . meam michi.’, Ps. 15:5.

{337}
Homily of Augustine. Confessio non semper est vox peccatoris
Trans. WR.

Another translation was made by Hunt in teh complete Augustine series.

‘. . . A mortuo quasi qui non sit : perit confessio.’, after Ecclesiasticus 17:28.

‘Dicentes se esse sapientes : stulti facti sunt.’, Rom 1:22.

‘Omnia mich tradita sunt a Patre meo.’, Mat. 11:27.

{340}
March 1: Saint David, Bishop and Confessor
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

While the Breviary 1531 indicates that all is from the common, ‘fiant, cetera’ which appears in 1519-S:60r. would suggest that the nine Lessons themselves were at some time considered proper to the Sarum feast.
The Sarum Breviary also includes a proper Antiphon to the Magnificat and Prayer (non Sarum).

The Penpont Antiphonale (GB-AB 20541 E) contains a full set of proper chants for the office. They will be found in the Appendix.
See Owain Tudor Edwards, Matins, Lauds and Vespers for St David’s Day: the Medieval Office of the Welsh Patron Saint in National Library of Wales MS 20541 E (Cambridge: Cambridge Univerity Press, 1990).
See also Gillian Lander, ‘Sources of Inspiration for the composer-poet of the Office for St David of Wales found in the Office for St Thomas Becket: An examination of
these Offices in the Penpont Antiphonal MS 20541E’ B. Mus. diss., Auckland Unviersity, 2011.
See also J. Wyn Evans and Jonathan M Wooding,  eds., St. David of Wales: Cult, Church and Nation.

Ant. Gloriose presul David
In GB-AB 20541:208v. this appears for the Memorial of Saint David.
This appears to be the only musical source for this Antiphon.

This antiphon or responsio is apparently the work of Gerald of Wales (Sally Harper, Music in Welsh Culture Before 1650: 165, 210, 229.)

{341}
Lessons.  Beatus Patricius natione Britannus
Trans. WR.
The Lessons are based on the Vita beati Davidis archiepiscopi et confessoris by Rhigyfarch (1056/7-1099). See J. W. James, ed. Rhigyfarch’s Life of Saint David: the basic mid twelfth-century Latin text with introduction, critical apparatus and translation (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1967).

The Legenda Sarum 1518 indicates ‘novem lectiones de communi’.

‘. . . Rosina . . .’, is this the Glyn Rhosyn valley, Pembrokeshire?

‘. . . quidam gildas nomine . . .’, Saint Gildas the Wise, c. 500-570, author of De excidio et conquestu Britannie

‘. . . divina miracula minime defecerunt.’   ‘ But on that day there prevailed such a storm of wind that none could even go out of doors, for there was a vast display of lightning, a dreadful clangor of thunder, and great floods caused by hailstorms and rain. But the place, wherein the mother cried in her travail, shone with so serene a light that it glistened as though the sun was visible and God had brought it in front of the clouds.’, Rhygyvarch’s Life of St David.

‘. . . Elweo Menevensi episcopo . . .’, presumably Elwaed (also known as Elafed, Elvaeth, and Elbodus of Gwynedd).

‘. . . aquaticum . . .’, David ‘the Aquatic’.

‘Exinde perrexit ad Paulinum . . .’, Paulinus of Wales.

‘. . . Thealio et Paterno . . .’, Saint Teilo (Eiludd, Eliud) ca. 500-560, founder and Bishop of Landaff, and Saint Padam.

‘. . . et Lupum Trecacensem . . .’, Saint Lupus (Loup, Leu, Welsh: Bleiddian) of Troyes),  ca 383–478.

‘. . . cedente beato Dubricio.’, Saint Dubricius, ca. 465-550, Bishop of Ergyng.

{346}
March 2: Saint Chad, Bishop and Confessor
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

Like Saint David’s, Saint Chad’s Feast is all from the Common in the use of Sarum. However, the Breviary 1531 includes the full rhymed office of nine lessons according to the Use of Lichfield. Only one chant, ‘Sis pro nobis’, survives for this feast.
The Psalter [521] includes the Feast of the Translation of Saint Chad [521] and the Commemoration of Saint Chad [524].
See also R. Hyett Warner, The Life and Legends of Saint Chad (Wisbech: Leach & Son, n. d.).
A discussion of the rhymed office, including translations of antipons and responsories, appears in ‘The Ancient Offices of some of England’s Saints’, The Dublin Review (January, 1894) CXIV-1:22-28.

The York Use includes nine lessons but no proper chants.

First Vespers
1 Ant. Germanorum quatuor
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

The first four antiphons on the psalms at first vespers all have the goliardic metre, 7pp6p x2.  This is the same metre as thefirst four psalm-antiphons at first vespers of St. Osmund.  Therefore I have used the same music in recreating both sets of chants.

2 Ant. Summo sacerdotio
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{347}
3 Ant. His inerat numerus
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

4 Ant. Omners evangelium
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{348}
5 Ant. Cedda tantum ceteris
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Resp. O pastor digne miseris
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{349}
Ant. Sis pro nobis
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{350}
Ant. Pastor vigil gregis
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
This antiphon is clearly modelled on ‘Pastor cesus in gregis’ for the feast of St. Thomas Becket.  (So too is the antiphon ‘Pastor pius ad gregis’ for the feast of St. Osmund.)

{351}
Prayer. Deus qui sanctorum tuorum meritis

Matins
Invit. In qua vigent jugiter
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{352}
1 Ant. Mundi calcans gloriam
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

2 Ant. Jugo se supposuit
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{353}
3 Ant. Quem cum vite sanctitas
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Lessons of the Venerable Bede. ‘Temporibus igitur Oswini’.
Trans. WR.

{354}
1 Resp. Hunc quem magnum reddit
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{355}
2 Resp. Hic legati verbo paruerat
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{356}
3 Resp. De quo Deus ita disposuit
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{358}
4 Ant. Postes Agnis sanguine
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

5 Ant. Pugnans contra vicia
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{359}
6 Ant. Qui sic fontem frigidum
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

4 Resp. Legem Christi qui sic tenuerat
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{361}
5 Resp. Postquam Cedde lux presens clauditur
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{362}
6 Resp. Occurrentes ad eum languidi
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{364}
7 Ant. Ab habenis mortui
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

8 Ant. Et curatis languidis
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{365}
9 Ant. Aque mixte pulvere
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{366}
7 Resp. Hic in carne vivens
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{368}
8 Resp. Cedde sancti contactu loculi
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{370}
9 Resp. Pie pastor et pater ovium
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{371}
Ante laudes V. Ora pro nobis

Lauds
1 Ant. Claustri clausus carcere
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{372}
2 Ant. Cujus fama claruit
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

3 Ant. Pastor pavit populum
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{373}
4 Ant. Presulis officium Cedda
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{374}
5 Ant. Deviantes moribus oves
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Ant. Presul pie sancte Cedda
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{375}
Ant. Pastor pie pro tuis ovibus
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{376}
The antiphons at the little hours would be 1, 2, 3, and 5 of Lauds; the chapters and the rest would be from the common, except for the prayer, which is repeated from first vespers.

Second Vespers

{377}
Ant. Qui mores docuit purgando
Translation © 2022 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

{378}
March 7: Saints Perpetua and Felicity
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
This feast is only ever observed as memorial at vespers and lauds of the Blessed Virgin, except in years A-5, B-5 and C-5 when, falling before Ash Wednesday, it is observed only as a memorial.
Only if only one commemoration is observed, can this feast be accommodated, and that only in years A-5 and B-5, on which occasions it would be sung ‘cum nocturno’–or, if this were the feast of the place, in which case it would be observed as a double feast.
It would appear that this feast entered the Kalendar as early as the eighth century, and remained in the books even though it was gradually replaced by the commemorations.  There might be reluctance to remove the feast, seeing that Perpetua and Felicity are named in the canon of the mass.  The Use of York omits the feast altogether.The lessons could be read at the collation this day in Lent.

See J. Armitage Robinson, The Passion of St. Perpetua: Together with an Appendix Containing the Original Latin Text of the Sicilian Martyrdom (Cambridge, 1891).
See also Petr Kitzler, From Passio Perpetuae to Acta Perpetuae: Recontextualizing a Martyr Story in the Literature of the Early Church (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2015).

Lessons. Facta itaque persecutione
Trans. WR.
These lesson are based on The Passion of Saints Perpetua and Felicity (much of which was apparently written by Perpetua herself).  See (in English) Medieval Sourcebook: St. Perpetua: The Passion of Saints Perpetua and Felicity 203.

‘. . . in civitate Tuburbitanorum.’, Tebourba (Thuburbo Minus), Tunisia.

{381}
March 8: Saint Felix
Prayer. Deus qui maxime clementiam

{382}
March 12: Saint Gregory, Pope and Doctor
Inferior Double Feast
While the Sarum Use contains no proper chants for this feast, the monastic use of Worcester F-160 contains a full set of chants, and the York Breviary also contains these texts.

Prayer. Deus qui anime famuli tui Gregorii

Lessons. Gregorius papa incytus urbe Romana.
Bede’s Historia Anglorum is related.
Trans. WR.

‘. . . Levitamque septimum . . .’, ‘Diaconum septimum, Levitam septimum, dit Gregoire de Tours.  Le Pape S. Corneille dans l’Epître qu’Eusebe nous a conservée, dit que dans l’Eglise de Rome il y avoir quarante-six Prêtres, & seulement sept Diacres. L. VI. Hist. cap. 43.’, Denis de Sainte-Marthe, Histoire de S. Grégoire le Grand (Rouen, 1697):72.  One deacon was assigned to each of the seven ecclesiastical divisions of Rome, and was assisted by a subdeacon.  Gregory’s official title then would be diaconus regionarius.

[March 17: Saint Patrick
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two..
This feast appears only in the Kalendars of some Sarum Missals. There is nothing for St. Patrick in the Breviary (except the mention of his name in the Litany). Nine Lessons for St. Patrick appear in the Sarum-derived Breviarium Aberdonense, (1510), pars hyemalis, fo. S-70v.
The feast can of course be celebrated with all from the Common of one Bishop and Confessor.]

{387}
March 18: Saint Edward, King and Martyr (see also June 20)
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

Prayer. Deus eterni triumphator

Lessons. Sanctus Edwardus in regni solio
Trans. WR.

{391}
March 20: Saint Cuthbert, Bishop and Confessor
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.
Worcester F-160 contains a full set of proper chants, and the York Breviary also contains these texts.
See Christopher Hohler, ‘The Durham Services in Honour of Saint Cuthbert’, The Relics of Saint Cuthbert, ed C. F. Battiscombe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956):155-191.

Prayer. Deus qui per inestimablie munus

Lessons. Done indolis adolescens
Trans. WR.

{397}
March 21: Saint Benedict
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

Prayer.Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui hodierna die carnis eductum

Lessons. Fuit vir venerabilis gratia Benedictus.
Extracted from the Dialogues of Gregory, Book 2.
Trans. WR.

Lesson 1. Fuit vir vite venerabilis (Chap. 1)
‘. . . Enfidus . . .’, Enfide, Affile, 31 km east of Rome.
‘. . . cui Sublacus vocabulum est.’, Subiaco, 40 km east of Rome.

{398}
Lesson 3
‘Preconio itaque eximie conversationis . . . ‘, Chapter 3.

{399}
Lesson 4
‘Quodam autem tempore Servandus . . . ‘, Chapter 35.
‘. . . ut diem vinceret lux illa que in tenebris radiasset.’, c. f. Ps. 138:12; Isaiah 58:7; John 1:5.

{400}
Lesson 6. Chapter 32.
‘Quadam vero die venti ex more . . . ‘, Chapter 33-34; compare the lessons at St. Scholastica.

{401}
Lesson 7. Chapter 22.

Lesson 8. Chapter 5

‘Quidam quoque ejus monachus . . .’, Chapter 6.

{402}
‘Quidam etiam puer sancti viri . . .’, Chapter 7.

Lesson 9. Chapter 8.
‘Eodem vero anno quo vir Dei . . .’, Chapter 37.

({404}
March 25: The Annunciation
Minor Double Feast
Vespers
Ant. Orietur sicut sol

{405}
Chap. Ecce virgo concipiet

Hymn. Ave maris stella
Performing trans. in G. H. Palmer, The Order of Vespers, 72*. Vv. 1 and 7. by Athelstan Riley, Hours of the Blessed Virgin Mary, ‘Little Office;, 1891.
Scholarly trans. The Summit Choirbook (The Dominican Nuns Monastery of Our Lady of the Rosary, Summit NJ, 1983), #210.  The editor of this book was Sr. Maria of the Cross, 1937-2012).

Many translations appear in other meters.  However, another metrical translation, with an unusual rhyme scheme, is that by R. A. Knox, The Westminster Hymnal, 1939: 101.

{407}
Hymn. Ave maris stella

{408}
V. Rorate celi desuper

Ant. Ingressus angelus ad Mariam

{409}
Prayer. Deus qui de beate Marie

Si hoc festum in xl. evenerit . . .’ This rubric in fact applies to all feasts falling between Ash Wednesday and Maundy Thursday; only Sundays are excepted.  In this case ‘xl.’ signifies the season beginning at Ash Wednesday, not the season beginning with the first Sunday in Lent.  See also the Chair of St. Peter, February 22.

Matins
Invit. Ave Maria gratia plena

{410}
Hymn. Quem terra ponthus ethera
Ascribed to Fortunatus (530-609)
Trans. J. M. Neale.
The Hymn for Lauds, ‘O Gloriosa virginum’, is a continuation of this Hymn.

{411}
1 Ant. Prophete predicaverunt

{412}
2 Ant. Rorate celi desuper

3 Ant. Egredietur virga

{413}
V. Ex Syon species

Lessons. Ingressus angelus ad Mariam.
Trans. WR.
Homeliarum evangelii libri II ( CPL 1367), Homily (Sermon) 47 Giles ed. V:360, beginning page 362.
‘Ingressus angelus ad Mariam . . . in mulieribus.’, Luke 1:28.

1 Resp. Ingressus angelus ad Mariam

{414}
‘Ne timeas . . . Filius Altissimi vocabitur.’, Luke 1:30-31.  It is unusual for the ‘text’ to appear at the end of one lesson when the ‘explanation’ follows in the next lesson.

‘Hic erit magnus : et Filius Altissimi vocabitur.’, Luke 1:32.

{415}
2 Resp. Suscipe verbum

{416}
3 Resp. Maria ut audivit

{417}
4 Ant. Ecce veniet Deus

5 Ant. Super solium David

{418}
6 Ant. Super te Hierusalem

Ve. Egredietur virga

‘Et dabit illi Dominus Deus sedem David patris ejus.’, Luke 1:32.
‘. . . Qui eruit nos de potestate . . . in Regnum Filii charitatis sue.’, Col. 1:13.
‘. . . Benedictus qui venit . . .rex Israel.’, John 12:13.
‘. . . Benedictus qui venit . . . patris nostri David.’, Mark 11:10.

{419}
4 Resp. Dixit angelus ad Mariam

‘. . . domo regnabit in eternum : et regni ejus non erit finis.’, after Luke 1:32-33.
‘. . . Dixit autem Maria . . . quoniam virum non cognosco ?’, Luke 1:34.

{420}
5 Resp. Ecce concipies

‘Respondens angelus dixit . . . virtus Altissimi obumbrabit tibi.’, Luke 1:35.

{421}
‘. . . Et ego mitto . . . virtute ex alto.’, Luke 24:49.
‘Ideoque et quod nascitur . . . Filius Dei.’, Luke 1:35.
‘Omnes quippe homines in iniquitatibus concipimur . . .’, c. f. Ps. 50:7.
‘. . . ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto renascimur.’, c.f. John 3:5.

6 Resp. Dabit illi Dominus Deus

{422}
7 Ant. Benedicta tu in mulieribus

8 Ant. Dabit ei Dominus sedem

{423}
9 Ant. Beata es Maria que credidisti

V. Egredietur Dominus

Homily of the Venerable Bede.  Idcirco angeli privatis nominibus censentur.
Giles ed. In Luce Evang. Liber Primus, Cap. III. vol. X:286.
Trans. WR

{424}
‘. . . Dominus fortis et potens : Dominus potens in prelio.’, Ps. 23:8.
‘. . .  Dominus virtutum : ipse est rex glorie.’, Ps. 23:10.

7 Resp. Quomodo fiet istud

{425}
‘Ad virginem desponsatam . . . et nomen virginis Maria.’, Luke 1:27.
‘Et ingressus angelus . . . benedicta tu in mulieribus.’, Luke 1:28.

{426}
8 Resp. Dixit autem Maria

‘Que cum audisset . . . qualis esset ista salutatio.’, Luke 1:29.

{427}
‘Et ait angelus . . . gratiam apud Deum.’, Luke 1:30.
‘. . . Ecce concipies . . . et vocabis nomen ejus Jesum.’, Luke 1:31.
‘. . . ipse enim . . . a peccatis eorum.’, Mat. 1:21.
‘. . . unum ovile et unus pastor’, John 10:15.
‘Hic erit magnus . . . sedem David patris ejus.’, Luke 1:32.

9 Resp. Christi Virgo dilectissima

{428}
V. Emitte agnum Domine

{429}
Lauds
1 Ant. Angelus Domini nunciavit

2 Ant. Ne timeas Maria

{430}
3 Ant. Quomodo fiet istud

4 Ant. Spiritus Sanctus in te

{431}
5 Ant. Ecce ancilla Domini

Hymn. O gloriosa femina
Ascribed to Fortunatus (530-609)
Performing trans. Percy Dearmer, The English Hymnal:215.
Scholarly trans. J. W. Doran (The Directory of Plainsong) and N. J. Blacker, (The Hymner), Matthew Britt, The Hymns of the Breviary and Missal (1925):151.
This Hymn is a continuation of the Matins Hymn, ‘Quem terra ponthus’.

{433}
Ant. Missus est Gabriel angelus

Prime

Terce
In Eastertide the responsory will include ‘alleluya’, using the Eastertide melody.  This is not shown in the sources.

Sext

{434}
Chap. Egredietur virga de radice Jesse

In Eastertide the responsory will include ‘alleluya’, using the Eastertide melody.  This is not shown in the sources.

None
Chap. Egredietur Dominus de loco sancto suo

In Eastertide the responsory will include ‘alleluya’, using the Eastertide melody.  This is not shown in the sources.

Second Vespers

{435}
V. Elegit eam Deus

Ant. Virgo Dei genitrix
This Antiphon appears in only 4 non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{438}
April 3: Saint Richard of Chichester
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

The Sarum Use gives only a proper Prayer; the rest is from the common.
Andrew Hughes notes a rhymed Office for St. Richard in Rome: Biblioteca Allesandrina (Universitaria) 120 (‘British Rhymed Offices’, Music in the Medieval English Liturgy, ed. Susan Rankin and David Hiley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993): 274.

Prayer. Deus qui ecclesiam tuam meritis beati Richardi

{439}
April 4: Saint Ambrose
Inferior Double Feast

Prayer. Deus qui populo tuo eterne salutis

Lessons. Ambrosius Rome natus
Trans. WR.
The lessons are based on Paulinus, Life of St. Ambrose.  A translation appears in Roy J. Deferrari, The Fathers of the Church: Early Christian Biographies (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1952):33-66.

‘Eo tempore in urbe Mediolana . . .’, based on Paulinus, chapter 3.

{440}
‘. . . reda . . .’, i.e. ‘raeda’, carriage, coach.

{441}
‘. . . (Heliseo similis) . . .’, see IV Regum 4:34.
‘. . . Marcomannorum . . .’, the Marcomanni, a Germanic tribe centred north of the Danube in the region of Bohemia.

{442}
Homily. Predixerat Dominus discipulos suos
These lessons appear to be unique to the Sarum Rite.
Trans. WR.

‘. . . Vermis eorum non morietur . . . non extinguetur.’, Isaiah 66:24.

{443}
‘. . . Sermo vester in gratia Dei sit sale conditus.’, after Col. 4:6.
‘In libro autem Regum legitur . . .’, see IV Kings 2:19-22.
‘. . . Verbum caro factum est, et habitavit in nobis.’, John 1:14.
‘Vos . . . lux estis mundi.’, Mat. 5:14.
‘. . . Nonne duodecim hore sunt diei ?’, John 11:9.
‘. . . Apostolus autem horas appellat.’, does this allude to the 12 apostles and the 12 hours of the day?
‘Non potest . . . supra montem posita.’, Mat. 5:14.
‘Sic . . . luceat lux vestra coram hominibus.’, Mat. 5:16.
‘. . . et glorificent Patrem vestrum qui in celis est.’, Mat. 5:16.

{445}
April 14: Saints Tiburtius and Velerianus (and Maximus)
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons.
Being in Eastertide, the Invitatory is sung by two.

Risby 62r. indicates at First Vespers ‘Antiphone et psalmi feriales’.

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus :ut qui santorum martyrum tuorum

Lessons. Valerianus atque Tyburcius frater ejus
Trans. WR.

The Lessons are based on the Acts of St. Cecilia.
‘. . . cornicularius . . .’, an aide to a magistrate.
‘. . . purpureus . . .’, i.e. noble (Gueranger: 104).

{446}
‘. . . abjicite opera tenebrarum, et induimini arma lucis.’, after Rom. 13;12.

{447}
April 19: Saint Alphege
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons.
Being in Eastertide this Invitatory is sung by two.

Prayer. Deus qui beatum Alphegum confessorum tuum

{448}
April 23: Saint George
Inferior Double Feast (Major Double according to provincial constitutions.) See [910].

Prayer. Deus qui nos beati Georgii martyris tui

Lessons. Sanctus et verus Dei cultor
Trans. WR.
These lessons are paralleled in the South English Legendary (ca. 1270-80) (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS 145, fols. 59r-60r).

‘. . . Omnes dii gentium . . . celos fecit.’, Ps. 95:5.

{451}
April 25: Saint Mark
Inferior Double Feast

Chap. Unicuique nostrum data est gratia

Prayer. Deus qui beatum Marcum evangelistam tuum

Lessons. Beatus Marcus evangelista ab Egypti partibus
Trans. WR.
These lessons are related to those in the Golden Legend.

{452}
‘ . . . et Penthapolin pergit.’, Penthapolis, the western province of Cyrenaica.
‘. . . Ducite bubalum ad loca bubali.’, a difficult passage.  Vincenzio Luigi Gotti, Veritas religione christianae (Rome, 1737): 448, adds ‘loca enim erant ad mare scopulis aspera, in quibus forte bubali seu boves servabantur’.  This is based on an earlier form of the text: ‘Trahebant eum ad loca Buculi, quae erant juxta mare sub rupibus.’ (‘they dragged him to the places of the wild buffalo where the sea was near under the cliffs.). The Golden Legend indicates that Mark ‘built a church on the rocks near the sea, at a place called Bucculi’.
‘. . . In manus tuas . . . . spiritum meum.’, Ps. 30:6, Luke 23:46.

Terce

{453}
Sext
Chap. Qui descendet, ipse est qui ascendit

None
Chap. Et ipse dedit quosdam quidem apostolos

Second Vespers

{454}
April 28: Saint Vitalis
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons.
Being in Eastertide, this invitatory is sung by two.

In earlier kalendars, this feast is not ruled.

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut intercedente beato Vitale martyre tuo

Lessons. Sanctus Vitalis consularis
Trans. WR.
‘. . . venisti ad palmam . . .’, it is unclear whether this is the ‘palm of martyrdom’ or ‘the place of the palm’ (see below), apparently a place of execution.

{456}
April 30: Deposition of Saint Erkenwald, Bishop and Confessor
London Synod: Three Lessons with Rulers of the Choir.

It is not clear as to why the lessons for the Deposition of St. Erkenwald are printed following the feast of his Translation {1671} in the Breviary 1531, rather than here.

A Mass for Saint Erkenwald is printed in William Sparrow Simpson, Documents Illustrating the History of S. Paul’s Cathedral (London: Camden Society, 1880):15.
A Prayer appears in the same volume (p. 16), reprinted from the Sarum Hore beate virginis quarto, Paris, 1533: fo. 24.
Pages 17-24 contain the texts for a full Office and Mass (including a Sequence) for Saint Erkenwald, printed from British Library Add Mss 5810:fo. 198.

{457}
May 1: Saints Philip and James
Inferior Double Feast

Vespers
Ant. Vado parare vobis locum

Cap. Stabunt justi in magna constancia

V. Gavisi sunt discipuli

{458}
Ant. Tanto tempore vobiscum sum

Prayer. Deus qui nos annua apostolorum tuorum

Matins
Homily. Erigenda est nobis fratres ad Deum
Trans. WR.

{459}
‘. . . in domo Patris mei mansiones multe sunt.’, John 14:2.
‘. . . ipse sedet ad dexteram Patris : et venturus est . . .’, vide the Nicene Creed.
‘. . . ignosce illis, non enim sciunt quid faciunt . . .’, Luke 23:34.

{460}
‘. . . civitate Ierapoli . . .’, Hierapolis, south-west Anatolia, near modern-day Denizli.
‘Quique apu Ierapolim Asye . . . et ibidem sepultus est.’  Philips remains appear to have been tranferred first to Constantinople and thence to Rome, to the sixth century Church of the Twelve Apostles, originally dedictated to St. James and St. Philip.

V. Cognoverunt Dominum

{461]
Lauds
1. Ant. Domine ostende nobis Patrem

2. Ant. Philippe qui videt me

3. Ant. Ego sum via veritas

{462}
4. Ant. Spiritus et anime justorum

5. Ant. Si manseritis in me

Ant. Non turbetur cor vestrum

{463}
Prime

Terce
Resp. Gavisi sunt discipuli

{464}
V. Domine ostende nobis Patrem

Sext
Cap. Virtute magna reddebant apostoli

Resp. Domine ostende nobis Patrem
This Responsory appears in only one non-Sarum source in CANTUS, E-Tc 44.1.

V. Non turbetur cor vestrum

{465}
None
Cap. Ibant apostoli gaudentes

Resp. Non turbetur cor vestrum
This Responsory is unique to Sarum in CANTUS.

V. Cognoverunt Dominum

Second vespers

{466}
Ant. Si cognoveritis me

{467}
May 3: The Invention of the Holy Cross
Minor Double Feast

First vespers
Ant. Dulce lignum dulces clavos

Chap. Michi autem absit gloriari

Resp. O crux viride lignum

{469}
Prose. Crux fidelis terras celis
This Prose appears only in Sarum sources in CANTUS.
It has rhyming couplets of 8+7, 8+7, and is in fact in the form of a Hymn.

John Mason Neale, Hymni Ecclesiæ, a Breviariis quibusdam et Missalibus Gallicanis, Germanis, Hispanis, Lusitanis, desumpti. (Oxford and London: Parker, 1851):182, indicates that the Sarum text is a part of a larger text found in Breviario Bracharensi [Braga], however I have not yet found this text in the Braga Breviary. The Sarum version omits the third and fourth stanzas.
Crux est signum quod est dignum
Conservare perditos:
Crux est dies per quam quies
Redditur ad timidos.

Crux est satis fida ratis:
Crux est horror demonum:
Crux est scutum nimis tutum
Et tropheum militum.

{470}
Hymn. Impleta sunt que concinit
This text is Verses 4-8 of the Hymn ‘Vexilla regis prodeunt’, 1056.
It is rarely found as a separate Hymn. In CANTUS, besides Sarum it appears only in sources from Worcester, Wurzburg, Jumieges, Augsburg, Cologne, and Aachen.
The Breviarium Romanum uses ‘Vexilla regis’.

{472}
V. Hoc signum crucis erat in celo

Ant. O crux benedicta

Prayer. Deus qui in preclara salutifere

Memorial of Alexandro, Eventio and Theodolo

{473}
Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui sanctorum martyrum

Procession before the cross
Ant. O crux gloriosa
This Antiphon is in rhyme, and more or less in metre.

{474}
V. Dicite in nationibus

Matins
Invit. Alleluya salve sancta

{475}
Hymn. Pange lingua gloriosi
This Hymn is repeated from Passiontide, 1064.

{476}
Ant. Adoramus te Christe

{477}
V. Hoc signum crucis

Lessons. Cum imperator Constantinus victoriam obtineret
Trans. WR.
A different version of the story appears in John Patrick (the Marquess of Bute) The Roman Breviary II (Edinburgh and London: Blackwood, 1908):849.

‘Cum imperator Constantinus victoriam . . . ‘, Constantine defeated Maxentius in 312.

1. Resp. Dulce lignum dulces clavos

{478}
2. Resp. Hoc signum crucis erit in celo

{480}
3. Resp. O crux gloriosa

{481}
V. Dicite in nationibus

Lauds
1. Ant. Helena Constantini mater

2. Ant. Tunc precepit eos

{482}
3. Ant. Helena sancta dixit ad Judam

4. Ant. Orabat Judas Deus Deus meus

{483}
5. Ant. Cum orasset Judas

Hymn. Crux fidelis inter omnes
This Hymn is a portion of the Hymn ‘Pange lingua gloriosi’. It appears in only 7 non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{484}
V. Omnis terrat adoret te, Deus

Ant. O crux benedicta

{485}
Prime

Terce
Resp. Hoc signum crucis erit in celo

{486}
V. Dicite in nationibus

Sext
Chap. Verbum crucis pereuntibus stultitia est

Resp. Dicite in nationibus
This Responsory appears in only four non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.

{487}
None
Chap. Nos autem predicamus Christum crucifixum

Resp. Adoramus te Christe

Second vespers

{488}
Resp. Per tuam crucem

{489}
Ant. O crux splendidior

{491}
May 6: Saint John before the Latin Gate
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by three.

The image depicts Saint John, who, placed in a vat of boiling oil before the Latin Gate, in the presence of Emperor Domitian, is unharmed.
The location of this event is commemorated in Rome by both the Basilica of San Giovanni a Porta Latina and the Chapel of San Giovanni in Oleo.

Normally First Vespers of St. John of Beverley will be sung, rather than Second Vespers of St. John the Evangelist.  Second Vespers of St. John the Evangelist may however occur when this feast is deferred to May 8.

Vespers
Chap. Qui timet Deum faciet bona

{492}
Ant. In ferventis olei

Prayer. Deus qui conspicis quia nos undique mala

Matins
Lessons. Hodie sancti Johannis apostoli
Trans. WR.

{493}
‘Interfecto autem a senatu Domiciano . . . ‘, September 18, 96 A.D.
‘In principio erat Verbum . . . erat Verbum.’, John 1:1.

V. Valde honorandus est beatus Johannis

Lauds

{494}
Ant. Propter insuperabilem

Prime

Terce

Sext
Chap. Cibavit illum pane vite

{495}
None
Chap. In medio ecclesie aperuit os ejus

Second Vespers
Ant. Occurrit beato Johanni ab exilio

{496}
May 7: Saint John of Beverley
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.

Prayer. Deus qui presentem diem beate Johannis confessoris tui

Memorial of the apostle
Ant. Occurrit beato Johanni

{497}
Matins
Lessons. Beatus Johannis archiepiscopus
Trans. WR.
‘. . . Theodoro Cantuarensi . . .’, St. Theodore of Tarsus, d. 690.  Other sources suggest that he was taught by Theodore’s friend, St. Adrian of Canterbury (d. 710), abbot of St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s, Canterbury.
‘. . . Alfrido . . ‘, Aldfrith, King of the Northumbrians, 685-704.  John was Bishop Hexham 685-705.
‘. . . Brithunum . . .’, St. Brithunus (d. 733), first Abbot of Beverley.
‘. . . beatus Wilfridus episcopus . . .’, St. Wilfrid (ca. 633-709 or 710), Bishop of Northumbria 664-678.
‘. . . Hangustaldensis ecclesie . . .’, Hexham, Hangustald, Hextoldesham, Axlelodunum; Wilfrid was Bishop here 706-709.

{498}
‘. . . pontificatum commisit Eboracensem.’, Wilfrid II, Bishop of York 718-732.  (It was during the pontificate of his successor, Ecgbert, that the see of York became an archbishopric.)

{499}
May 9: The Translation of Saint Nicholas.
This would appear to be a Non-Sarum Feast: see the Kalendar.

The feast commemorates the translation of the relics from Myra to Bari in 1087.

Prayer. Deus bontiatis auctor et bonorum dispensator

{500}
May 10: Saints Gordianus and Epimachus
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons.
Being in Eastertide, this invitatory is sung by two.

Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui beatorum martyrum tuorum

Lessons. Julianus imperator apostata inter multos Christianos
Trans. WR.
‘Julianus imperator apostata . . .’, Flavius Claudius Julianus, Roman Emperor, 361-363.
‘. . . Magna nomine . . .’, ‘Mariria’, The Golden Legend.

{502}
May 12: Saints Nereus, Achileus, and Pancras
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons.
Being in Eastertide, this invitatory is sung by two.

Prayer. Semper nos Domine martyrum tuorum Nerei

Lessons. Domicilla virgo nobilissima
Trans. WR.
‘Domitilla . . .’, Flavia Domitilla (1st century), granddaughter of Emperor Vespasian.  The name of Domitilla was added to this feast day in the Roman Kalendar in 1595–and removed in 1969.
‘. . . Auspicius discipulus eorum . . .’, in the hagiographical tradition Saint Auspicius, having been consecrated by Clement I, became the first bishop of Apt, France (96-102), and was martyred under Trajan.

{503}
‘. . . sepultum est in sepulchro novo . . .’, Pancras was buried in a newly built sepulchre in the catacombs of Rome; his head was placed in a reliquary now located in the Basilica of St. Pancras.

{504}
May 19: Saint Dunstan
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

See William Stubbs, Memorials of Saint Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury (London: Longman, 1874). and Andrew J. Turner and Bernard J. Muir, ed. and trans., Eadmer of Canterbury, Lives and Miracles of Saints Oda, Dunstan and Oswald (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

Presumably the Ant. and V. for the memorial of St. Potentiana applies only to the memorial at first vespers; then at lauds would be the Ant. Veniente Sponso and the V. Adducentur Regi from lauds of the common of one virgin.  The earlier manuscript sources indicate only that there is a memorial of St. Potentiana.

Prayer. Deus qui beatum Dunstanum pontificem

Memorial of St. Pudentiana
Prayer. Concede nobis quesumus omnipotens Deus sancte Potentiane

Lessons. Beatus Dunstanus talibus parentis
Trans. WR.
These lessons are based on Epistola Adelardi ad Elfegum archiepiscopum de vita sancti Dunstani.  See Memorials of St. Dunstan: 54; 445 ff.

{505}
‘. . . Dorobernensi archiepiscopo Aldelmo . . .’, ‘Duroverum Cantiacorum’, i.e. Canterbury; (Saint) Aldhelm, Athelmo, Adelmo, Edelmo, Athelm, archbishop ca. 925-926.
‘. . . regi Athelstano . . .’, Athelstan, King of the Anglo-Saxons, 924-927; King of the English, 927-939.
‘. . . frater ejus Edmundus . . .’, Edmund I, King of the English, 939-946.
‘. . . Edgarus . . .’, Edgar the Peaceful, younger son of Edmund I, King of the English, 959-975.
‘. . . signum salutis . . .’, the sign of the cross.
‘. . . cambucam . . .’, presumably crook or staff, i.e. bishop’s crozier.

{506}
‘. . . Exurgat Deus, et disspipentur inimici ejus . . .’, Ps. 67:2.
‘. . . Odo archiepiscopus . . .’, Oda of Canterbury, archbishop 941-958.
‘. . . Kyrie eleyson . . . ‘, Kyrie Rex splendens.
‘. . . Gaudent in celis anime sanctorum . . .’, antiphon on Magnificat, first vespers of many martyrs; fifth antiphon for first vespers, the Feast of Relics.  (In heaven the souls of the saints are rejoicing.)

{508}
May 25: Saint Aldhelm
Simple Feast of 9 Lessons with Invitatory sung by two.

Prayer. Deus qui hodierna die sanctum pontificem tuum Aldelmum

Saint Urban, memorial
Prayer. Da [nobis] quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui beati Urbani

Matins
Lessons. Beatissimus Aldelmus splendidissime Anglorum genere
Trans. WR.
‘. . . Ine regis . . .’, King of Wessex, 689-726.

{509}
‘. . . Muldunensi monasterio . . .’, Malmesbury Abbey.
‘. . . Sergius apostolicus . . .’, Sergius I, Pope, 687-701.

{510}
Middle lessons of St. Urban: Beatus Urbanus episcopus
Trans. WR.
‘. . . octavusdecimus vicarius . . .’, he is normally numbered as 17th.
‘. . . beatus Calixtus episcopus . . . ‘, St. Calixtus I, pope 217-222.
‘. . . tempore Macrini imperatoris . . .’, Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus, emperor 217-218.
‘. . . tempora Alexandri . . .’, Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander, emperor 235-238.
‘. . . ministerium quoque sacrum solerti . . . ‘, the Breviarium Nidrosiense 1519 has ‘. . . mysterium’ etc.
‘. . . largitione Nicholai pape . . .’, presumably NIcholas I (the Great), pope 858-867.
‘. . . in basilici sancti Germani apud Antissiodorum . . .’, the Abbey of Saint-Germain d’Auxerre.

{511}
‘. . . Phebeus . . .’, Phoebu, i.e. Apollo.
‘. . . ecclesiam sancte Dei genitricis construerat . . .’, Sherbourn e Abbey, begun in 705.7
‘. . . quia dyocesis ejus ab uno gubernari nreuiebat ydonie . . .’, around 705 the diocese of Winchester was divided into Winchester and Sherbourne.
‘Una data est Daniel . . . ‘, Daniel, Bishop of Winchester, ca. 705-744. An intimate friend of Aldhelm, Bede, and Boniface.

{512}
Memorial of St. Urban

{513}
May 26: St. Augustine (of Canterbury)
Inferior Double Feast

The only musical items in CANTUS for this Feast are a Responsory, ‘Alme pater Augustine’, and an Antiphon, ‘Exultet in hac die’, found in GB-WO F-160:223r.
An Office for St. Augustine appears in AH 13: 17. (London Harl. 4664).
An Antiphon for St. Augustine, ‘Anglorum primas’, appears in AH 28: 286.

Prayer. Deus qui beatum Augustinum pontificem

Lessons. Beatus Gregorius Romane sedis pontifex
excdrpted from Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book 1, Chapters 23 ff.
Trans. WR.
‘. . . rex Ethelbertus . . .’, Ethelbert, King of Kent, ca. 589-616.
. . . Tenedos insula . . .’, the Isle of Thanet.

{514}
‘. . . civitate Dorobornensi . . .’, Duroverum Cantiacorum’, i.e. Canterbury.
‘. . . Arelas . . . archiepiscopo . . . Ethereo. . .’, Arles, France; Ethereus, d. ca. 602.  Etherus was apparently bishop of Lyon, not Arles.

{516}
May 28: Saint Germain
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
In Eastertide, this invitatory is sung by two.
Outside of Eastertide this feast is only sung where the full octave of Corpus Christi is not observed.

Lessons. Beatus igitur Germanus Parisorum pontifex
Trans. WR.
Based on Vita Sancti Germanii by Venantius Fortunatus.
‘. . . Augustudunensis . . .’, Autun.

{517}
May 31: Saint Petronilla
Simple Feast of 3 Lessons with Invitatory sung by one.
In Eastertide, this invitatory is sung by two.
Outside of Eastertide this feast is only sung where the full octave of Corpus Christi is not observed.  Then the feast is sung ‘cum nocturno’.

Prayer. Deus qui beate Petronille virginis tue

Lessons. Marcellus discipulus beati Petri apostoli
Trans. WR.

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