Customary Digest

The Sarum Customary is available in several versions, both Latin and English at Sarum Customary Online. The Sarum Customary first and foremost guides the customs of worship as observed at Salisbury Cathedral. The Sarum Customary was in its own time adapted to the various needs of other situations, collegiate, parochial, domestic, etc.

This page, the Customary Digest, is an attempt to order, and adapt where helpful, the information most useful to modern-day liturgical performance. References that are provided are made to the source and paragraph codes of the on-line documents. The Customary Digest should not be taken as authoritative, but rather a general guide!

Currently this document tabulates only the content of the Old Register (OCO).

In the following notes ‘clerks’ includes the boys unless otherwise indicated. While these directions assume a choir of men and boys, in our times it is appropriate to make suitable adaptations to include women and girls according to local circumstances.

The principal topics are:
-The persons constituted to office and their duties
-Ordering in the Quire
-Vestments
-Rulers of the Choir
-The Order on Sundays
-The duty roster
-The blessing of salt and water
-Processions
-Vigils of the Dead

The persons constituted to office (OCO-1)
There are four principal persons constituted within the Cathedral church of
Salisbury: the dean, the precentor, the chancellor and the treasurer. There are also four archdeacons, namely the Archdeacons of Dorset, Berkshire, and two of Wiltshire. In addition there is a subdean and a succentor.
The Dean: 2.1. The duty of the dean is to take care of the cure of souls and the correction of
morals amongst all the canons and vicars (&.). Canons receive their institution from the bishop, but the possession of prebends from the dean. (OCO-2.1.)
The dean assigns canons their stalls in quire and their places in the chapter: he appoints vicars from among sutiable clerks to fill if any vicars’ offices are vacant on account of any kind of absence. No clerk from the superior grade or the second form is admitted to the quire except by the authority of the dean. (OCO-2.2.)
The dean performs divine office on every double feast when the bishop is absent, and on the first Sunday of Advent, and on Palm Sunday, and on Ash Wednesday, and on the three days before Easter, and on the vigil of Pentecost, and on the anniversaries of the bishops and deans of the church of Salisbury. (OCO-2.3.)
The Precentor (OCO-3.1.) The precentor’s duty is to direct the choir in the pitching of the
chants; and to organise the cantors and the altar servants in the roster. He instructs the boys, discipline them, and oversees their admission into the choir and their organisation.
On the major double feasts the precentor, along with the other rulers of the choir, rules the choir at mass. On every double feast, he instructs the rulers of the choir in intoning the chants. He personally pre-intones all the chants which are to be begun by the bishop. (OCO-3.2.)
The Chancellor (OCO-4.) The chancellor is responsible for the government of the school
and the correction of the books; to listen to and adjudge lessons; to keep the seal of
the church; to compose letters and charters; to read letters in the chapte;: to record the readers in the roster; and to assign all the lessons at mass which are not written in the roster.
The Treasurer (OCO-5.) 5.1. The treasurer safeguards the ornaments and treasures of the
church. He look after the lighting: namely, four candles on the first Sunday of Advent, at both vespers, and at matins and mass: two on the superaltar and another two on the altar step. And the same is observed on Palm Sunday. On all other Sundays throughout the year, whenever the choir is ruled and the invitatory is sung by two, there ought to be at least two candles. On Sundays at mass there should be four candles. On Christmas Day, at both vespers and at mass, the treasurer is to see that there are eight candles (each of one pound at least), around the altar, and two before the image of the Blessed Mary. The same number of candles is required at matins. And besides this six in a prominent position in front of the relics, cross and images that are set up there; and five (six, OCR) (each of at least half a pound) in the corona in front of the altar step, and five (six, OCR) on the wall behind the readers’ pulpit. The same is observed on all double feasts which have a procession (OCR provides a list). From Pentecost to the Nativity of the Blessed Mary and on the feast of the Nativity itself seven candles are placed on a brass stand. On the other minor double feasts, at (both, OCR) vespers and at mass, four are placed around the altar and two before the image of the Blessed Virgin. At matins three are placed in the corona, and three behind the pulpit. Whenever the invitatory is said by three, and on the Thursday and Friday and Saturday of the week of Easter and Pentecost, the arrangement of lights is as on the first Sunday of Advent. On Maundy Thursday it is the same as on Sundays at mass. On Good Friday there are two candles at mass (and every feast of three lessons with duple invitatory, OCR). At matins on every weekday during the year there is only one, at the quire step, and at mass two candles. On the vigils of Easter and Pentecost at mass it is as on the major double feasts. On Good Friday, after the body of the Lord has been placed in the sepulchre, two candles (of at least half a pound each) shall burn all day in front of the sepulchre. On the following night, and thence until the procession (which takes place before matins on Easter day, OCR), only one of these, (and also, OCR) the great paschal candle, is lit. The treasurer is also charged each night with arranging one small lamp at the altar of St Martin, and another before the gates at the west quire door until matins is completed. (OCO-5.1.)
The treasurer also provides for the sacristans at his own expense; to see that the bells of the Cathedral are properly hung in good condition, and to provide the necessary funds to meet their requirements: to maintain the ornaments of the church at his own expense: to be in charge of bread, wine, water and candles on each of the altars of the church, except the one belonging to the parish: to supply the incense, coal, straw, rushes, and mats: that is, rushes for
the following feasts, for Ascension and Pentecost and the feast of John the Baptist: and for the Assumption and Nativity of the Blessed Mary; straw for the following feasts, for the feast of All Saints and for Christmas, and the Purification of the Virgin and for Easter; and mats for the feast of All Saints. (OCO-5.2.)
The Archdeacons (OCO-6.) The archdeacons are officers of the lord bishop, whose duties consist of external affairs.
The Subdean (OCO-7.) In the absence of the dean, the subdean take his place; he discharges the office of archdeacon in the city and the suburbs.
The Succentor (ODO-8.) In the absence of the precentor, the succentor discharges his duties, and directs the song school through his officer.

[Vicars. The cathedral had a large number of vicars whose main duty was to sing the office and mass in the place of the canons.
Boys. The cathedral supported a complement of boys who were educated by the cathedral staff, who sang in the choir, and who assisted in various ways.]

The privileges of the senior persons and the canons (OCO-9.) None of the canons or other clerks are to absent themselves except by licenceof the dean, or to leave the city to stay outside it for a single night without his certain knowledge. When the dean comes into the quire or the chapter, or passes through, all clerks rise, and bow to the same when entering or leaving the choir at the west end. (OCO-9.1.)
The dean and the canons answer to the bishop in nothing except in the chapter; they defer to the judgment of the chapter only. They have their own court in all their prebends, and the archdeacons this privilege, that wherever their prebends are assigned to be in the diocese of the bishopric of Salisbury, whether in churches, or in tithes or lands, no demand at all of gift or assize or of any other custom should be made by the bishop or anyone else within their prebends. But they shall have all their liberties and dignities, in full and peacefully, which the
aforementioned Bishop Osmund had in those same prebends when he held them
in his demesne. (OCO-9.2.)
Any canon obtaining any prebend is to pay one ounce of gold to the dean, and forty shillings – or one day’s procuration – to the canons for the sake of charity. And if any of the canons, whether at the dedication of churches or otherwise, should be with the bishop of the same diocese {of Salisbury}, he will have a part of the oblation just like a chaplain. Besides, Bishop Osmund conceded two parts of a dead canon’s prebend to the use of the other canons, and
the third part for the use of the poor for the duration of one year. Also the complete burial dues, along with the oblations which are offered when the bishop celebrates mass in the Cathedral church of Salisbury, except the moiety of one gold piece. If the lord bishop dedicates any churches or chapels belonging to {one of} the prebends, neither the chaplains of the bishop nor any others may receive anything there, except the canon whose prebend it is. (OCO-9.3.)
If the dean or any canon travels through any of the prebends, he ought by right and privilege to be shown hospitality by the canon whose prebend it is as his due for one night, whether the canon is present or not. And if through the fault of the canon himself, or of any servant of his, he is not welcomed for hospitality in the fitting way, compensation for that night will be given back in full to the canon upon his making a complaint on the subject, from the prebend, by the authority of the chapter. He will also be expected, if a reasonable cause demands, to show the goodwill of hospitality for a second night or more towards his brother canon; and, if a clear necessity is evident, he shall organise horses for him as far as Salisbury. (OCO-9.4.)

Residence of senior persons and canons. (OCO-10.) The dean, precentor, chancellor and treasurer should reside permanently at Salisbury Cathedral, without any form of excuse. Because the archdeacons have so great a task fulfilling their archidiaconal duties, two of them should always be resident at Salisbury Cathedral, unless a clear and unavoidable reason precludes them. (OCO-10.1.)
Canons may not be excused from residing at the Cathedral, unless it is for study or the service of the lord king; for he may have one in his chapel and the archbishop one, and the bishop three. If however a canon faces an unavoidable necessity which is in the common interest of the Cathedral church or his benefice, and this is clearly evident, he may be absent for a third part of a year. And when a canon is appointed, he must swear an oath on the gospel in the presence of his brothers that he will observe absolutely the privileges and customs of the Cathedral church of Salisbury. (OCO-10.2.)
On the death of a canon, all revenues and obventions of his prebend for the whole term within which he died are owed to him: likewise, the rents of the term following, and the obventions of the first day of that term. And there are four terms: that is, Michaelmas, Christmas, Easter, and the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist. When the term in which the canon died has elapsed, his estate takes a third part of the whole prebend for the following year. But from this third part a stipend ought to be paid to the vicar of the prebend for the whole of the following year. The remainder is bestowed for the uses of the poor or otherwise as stipulated by the deceased. On the death of a canon it is prescribed that there should be thirty days of funeral observance in the community, and that each priest should individually celebrate a trental for him. The others, whatever their rank, shall individually sing twenty psalters, and his anniversary should be privately celebrated by each one in his week. (OCO-10.3.)

Punishment of those who err. (OCO-11.) Seniors who err are to be implored as a brother; nevertheless if they are frequently absent from the daily sacrifice or the canonical hours without good reason, and having been censured by the dean they do not rectify this, they must
come prostrate to the chapter before the dean and the brothers to receive forgiveness. And if they are found guilty of disobedience and rebellion, or other scandalous behaviour, they should be removed from their stall to the doorway behind the dean or to the place of the last of the boys in the choir to do penance according to the magnitude of their transgression. And if they ignore this punishment and appear incorrigible, they should be subjected to more severe
discipline.

Ordering in the Quire (OCO-12.1)
The choir stalls of the four most senior persons are, at Salisbury, the ones on the end. As you come into the choir at the west end, the dean’s stall is on the right hand side, and the precentor’s on the left: at the east end of the choir the chancellor’s stall is on the right, opposite the treasurer’s. Next to the dean in the choir is placed the Archdeacon of Dorset: then the subdean: next to the chancellor an Archdeacon of Wiltshire: and in between are placed the canons nearest in seniority, then the priest vicars and a very few deacons who by virtue of their age and character have been promoted by special dispensation to the upper step. Nearest to the precentor in the choir is placed the Archdeacon of Berkshire, then the succentor; next to the treasurer the other Archdeacon of Wiltshire: then the remaining canons and clerics are arranged in the aforementioned manner.
12.2.In the second form the minor canons come first; then come the deacons, and after that the rest of the clerics. In the first form the boy canons come first, followed by the rest of the boys in order according to their age.
[The officiant normally takes the stall at south-west end of the quire ; the music leader takes the stall opposite, at the south-east of the quire. The singers are divided into two portions, one on the north, one on the south, in one, two or three rows, depending upon numbers, space, and furnishings. If the bishop is present his place is at the bishop’s throne or to the east of the choir, towards the altar, on the south side. Lay-folk normally occupy the nave, but may be invited to take places in the quire, space permitting.]

Entering and departing the Quire (OCO-13)
Clerks entering the Quire from the nave should bow to the altar, and to the dean if present; clerks entering the Quire from the north or south aisle should bow to the altar, and to the bishop if present. (They follow the same directions when leaving the quire. OCR)

Entering the quire (OCOC-14) Clerks are able to enter the choir at matins, and at all the hours which have hymns at the beginning of the office, until the hymn has finished; and at vespers up to the third or fourth verse of the first psalm, and at compline likewise; those, that is, who were present at the preceding vespers: but otherwise at compline and at vigils of the dead they may by no means come in. However during Quadragesima, they may come in at compline in the same way as at vespers at other times of year. And to a vigil of the dead and collation they may enter at any time. (OCO-14.1.)
Clerks may enter the quirer during mass up until the first collect. But at the hours which follow mass without a break none may enter unless they were present at that mass. However, during Quadragesima, on weekdays when the office is ferial, those who have taken part in the hours of the day can enter at vespers, though they were not at mass, and also on feasts of nine lessons, even if they were not present at all at any previous hour of the day. (OCO-14.2.)

Crossing from one side of the quire to the other (OCO-15)
Clerks crossing from one side of the quire to the other should stop in the middle and bow to the altar, and then continue. All the clerks should conduct themselves in the choir in an orderly fashion, so that none shall speak with another about worldly things, but lift up his heart and all his prayers perfectly to the glory of God, by saying perfectly and listening to God’s service: whereof the blessed Bede bears witness, saying: “There should be no noise from the clerks or the laity in the quire or in the church: no conversation should be held unless it is necessary and relevant to the praise of God.”

Standing at the Principal (Canonical) Hours (OCO-16)
Vespers, Matins and Lauds (OCO-16.1): The clerks should stand throughout, except they sit while the verse of the responsory (or the gradual or alleluya during Eastertide) is sung by soloists at the quire step. The boys remain standing except during the verse of the gradual or alleluya during Eastertide, when the sit. The clerks (and the boys) sit while the lessons at matins are being read and the responsory verses are being sung. (The clerks kneel during the preces when the preces are said.)
Matins: (At matins all clerks are to stand the entire time except when the lessons are being read and the responsories with their verses are being sung. Also all blessings throughout the year are said by the priest whilst seated, except only the first, fourth and seventh. But on Christmas
Day the three final blessings are said standing.) (NCC-F-12.1.)
By dispensation, clerks in the superior grade and those of the second form may sit down in turn during the psalms, whenever a nocturn is said at matins: also on all feasts of three lessons, which have nine psalms and nine antiphons: but with the proviso that when someone sits down for one psalm, he should not sing but the one nearest to him should stand and
sing in the meantime. (OCO-16.2.)
Compline: Clerks should stand throughout. (The clerks kneel during the preces when the preces are said. (NCC-F-12.1.))
Prime, Terce, Sext, None (OCO-16.3): Clerks should stand throughout. (The clerks kneel during the preces.) (At chapter the clerks may sit during the Martirology. OCR)
Mass: Clerks should stand throughout, except they sit during the lessons or epistles (but not the gospel) and while the verse of the gradual or alleluya or tract is sung by soloists. The boys remain standing, except they sit during the lessons or epistles. And on all double feasts all should stand while the Alleluya is sung by the choir. The boys, though, should always be upstanding at mass while the choir is singing.
(When two rulers only are appointed, they follow the rules for the clerks of the second form in all things at vespers and matins, and during mass: except always that when the choir sings the Alleluya they are to stand: and at the start of the chants at mass they should turn to the altar. On a double feast all the rulers of the choir do the same as the choir in all things. OCR)

Facing the Altar (OCO-17)
Vespers, Matins and Lauds (OCO-17.1): The clerks face the altar from the versicle Deus in adjutorium until the intonation of the first antiphon.
(OCO-17.2) The clerks face the altar during each Gloria Patri (at the end of each psalm or group of psalms).
The soloists standing in the midst of the quire face the altar when singing the responsory.
(The clerks face the altar during the Gloria Patri of the responsory.)
The clerks face the altar during the chapter and prayer.
The clerks face the altar during the final doxology verse of each hymn.
The clerks face the altar during the versicle.
The clerks face the altar from the Gloria Patri at Magnificat, Benedictus, or Nunc Dimittis, until the end of the office.
Prime and the little hours (OCO-17.3)
(The clerks face the altar from the versicle Deus in adjutorium until the intonation of the first antiphon.)
The clerks face the altar during each Gloria Patri (at the end of each psalm or group of psalms).
The clerks face the altar during the chapter.
Matins (OCO-17.4)
The clerks face the altar until the invitatory refrain begins for the last time.
The clerks face the altar from the final verse of the (last) psalm (of the nocturn) (i.e. the Gloria Patri verse) until the lesson begins.
At the pronouncement of any gospel, the clerks turn to the reader while the words of the gospel are said.
The clerks face the altar at Te Deum laudamus until the choir sings, and during the final verse (i.e. In te Domine speravi). When Te Deum laudamus is not said, the clerks turn to face the altar at Deus in adjutorium at the beginning of lauds. (In either case the clerks remain facing the altar until the first antiphon of lauds is intoned).
Prime, terce, sext, none:
The clerks follow the above directions.
Mass (OCO-17.5):
At Gloria in excelsis the clerks face the altar during the intonation until the choir sings. At Adoramus te, at Suscipe deprecationem nostram, and at Jesu Christe, cum Sancto Spiritu until the beginning of the epistle the clerks turn to the altar and bow. (The clerks make the sign off the cross during the final words, In gloria Dei Patris, amen.)
At the end of the gradual, Alleluya, the tract or prose, the clerks bow to the altar; then they turn to face the gospel reader.
At Gloria tibi Domine the clerks turn to face the altar, and sign themselves with the sign of the cross.
At the Sanctus, when Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini is sung the clerks turn to face the altar, and sign themselves with the sign of the cross.
At the start of Credo in unum Deum the clerks face the altar until the choir sings; the clerks bow to the altar at Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine; at Et homo factus est; and at Crucifixus etiam pro nobis. and at Et vitam venturi seculi. Amen. At this point the clerks remaing turned to the altar until the offertory is begun.
The clerks face the altar from when the priest turns to face the people (i.e. Sursum corda) until the priest turns back to the altar.
After the offertory the clerks face the altar until the end of the mass.

Kneeling (prostration) in the quire (OCO-18)
On ferias at the hours the clerks kneel during the preces, from Kyieleyson until Per Dominum nostrum at the end of the prayer.|
At the verse Exurge Domine the officiant alone stands.
At matins the clerks kneel during (each) Pater noster (and Ave Maria) until the versicle et ne nos inducas.
(Neither the Lord’s Prayer nor any other prayer is ever said while sitting, either at vespers or at matins or at the mass, but always either standing or prostrate, and this goes for the priest and for the whole choir throughout the year. NCC-F-14.1.)
(During Quadragesima there should be a genuflexion at the beginning of matins, lauds, vespers, compline and any other hour of the day when there is a ferial service, up until Maundy Thursday. In addition the choir should be prostrate on every weekday when there is a ferial service outside Eastertide; at vigils of the dead with three lessons; also at Placebo, from when Kyrieleyson is said until the last prayer is said. NCC-F:14.2.)
Mass (OCO-18.2):
At ferial masses outside of Eastertide, the clerks kneel after Sanctus until Per omnia secula seculorum before Agnus Dei. (until the Pax Domini even if Sanctus should have finished before the elevation of the body of Christ. The ministers around the altar, though, should not genuflect but should stand on their respective steps. NCC-F-14.2) (The preces in prostratione are said.)
Lent:
At the beginning of each hour there is a genuflection. (Presumably this is at Deus in adjutorium.)
Vigils of the Dead:
The clerks kneel at Placebo (vespers), from Kyrieleyson until the final prayer, and at Dirige (Matins) while the Lord’s Prayer is said before the lessons (until Et ne nos is said NCC-F:14.2.). At lauds as at vespers. (On weekdays starting from O Sapientia until the vigil of Christmas there should be no prostrations in the offices of the dead, at Placebo or at Dirige, when there is an exposition of the Gospel at matins of that day. NCC-F:14.2.)

Choir vestments (OCO-19)
The usual vestment for clerks is white surplice with black cope (cappa nigra (cloak)). On certain double feasts a silken cope (cappa serica) is worn instead at procession and at mass. (OCO-19.1)
Every clerk should wear a surplice under his cope. (OCO-24.1)
Easter vigil: at the beginning of Gloria in excelsis after the genuflection, the clerks throw off their black cloaks, and are seen to be wearing surplices; and thereafter through the whole octave, they should wear surplices. The same is done on the vigil of Pentecost and through the
week, and on all double feasts from Easter to the feast of St Michael (i.e. during the warmer summer months), they wear surplices in quire and in chapter at all the hours (and also through the octaves of the Assumption and the Nativity of Blessed Mary, OCR). (OCO-19.2)
Matins: (OCO-19.3): The clerks wear black copes throughout the year. Clerks of the superior grade may wear a black almuce in quire and in chapter. Other clerks should not wear an almuce. Rulers of the of the choir always wear silken copes in quire.
White (OCO-19.4): during Eastertide the ministers of the altar wear white dalmatics and tunicles; the rulers of the choir white copes; also on the Annunciation, within octaves of the Blessed Virgin Mary and on commemorations of the same throughout the year, and on both feasts of St Michael and on the feast of any virgin.
Red: (OCO-19.5) They ministers of the altar (and the rulers of the choir) wear red vestments on both feasts of the Holy Cross, and on any feast of a martyr and for singing tracts. On the single feasts during Quadragesima, and on Passion Sunday and on Palm Sunday, the rulers of the choir wear red copes.

On single feasts, if a ruler of the choir is to sing alone he does so in his silken cope. But if he sings together with another, his garments should conform to those of the other. If he is to read, he should put on the appropriate dress for readers outside the quire. (OCO-23.6)
When a responsory is sung at vespers, it is sung by two in silken copes. (OCO-25-2).

Ruling in the quire (OCO-20):
(Where rulers are used): the choir is ruled every Sunday and on every double feast and on
every feast of nine lessons throughout the whole year; and from first vespers of
Christmas up to the octave of Epiphany, and on the octave itself, except on the vigil of
Epiphany when it does not fall on a Sunday; and throughout Easter week and the
week of Pentecost, and on certain single feasts also which fall in Eastertide. Namely
on these: on the feasts of St Ambrose and St Mark and St George and of the apostles Peter and Paul; Philip and James : and on the Invention of the Holy Cross and on the feast of St John before the Latin gate, and St Dunstan, and St Aldhelm, and St Augustine and and St Barnabas the apostle ([and] St Richard, St. Vitalis, and St. Edmund, archbishop (NCC-F-20.)): and through the octave of the Ascension and on the octave of the apostles Peter and Paul and through the octave of the Assumption and the Nativity of the Blessed Mary (and every day in the octave and on the octave of the Dedication of the Church when it falls during the summer or in Eastertide and in the octave of Corpus Christi. NCC-F-20.).

Double feasts (a list is provided here) (OCO-21.1.) (NCC-F-19.)

Rulers on Double Feasts: (OCO-21.2.)
On double feasts the choir is ruled by four clerks; the two principal rulers are always be drawn from the superior grade. The two secondaries are drawn from the superior grade on Christmas Day and the two days following; and at Epiphany; and on Easter Sunday and Monday; on the day of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and on Ascension Day, on Pentecost and the following Monday. On other double feasts the secondary rulers are drawn from the second form.

Rulers on Sundays and Simple (Single) Feasts: (OCO-21.3)|
The choir is ruled by only two, from the second form. (On the major double feasts, it is left to the discretion of the precentor to choose whomever he wishes to direct the choir: but he should see to it that the senior rulers are always canons, if there are enough present. On the other double feasts the duty canons for the week are seniors. The secondaries should be selected from the second form at the will of the precentor. OCR) These rulers are the same which are tabled to sing the invitatory and to rule the choir for fifteen days (two weeks). This pattern is maintained throughout the year, such that senior ruler for the first week is the secondary for ruler for the the second week, and so on.

Alternation of the duties of the choir (OCO-22) (Alternation in the choir on this model is only practicable where the liturgy is performed on a daily basis.)
Weekly alternation: (OCO-22.1)
The duty (lead) side of the choir alternates week by week, with the cantoris side beginning in the first week (the first week of Advent, presumably). The duty side would change beginning with first vespers of each Sunday. However, on all double feasts the duty side should be the decani if the dean is present, since he is then the officiant; however in Christmastide and Eastertide and in the week of Pentecost on those series of double feasts the duty side is
changed each day.
Daily alternation (OCO-22.2)
From the Sunday before Christmas until the octave of the Epiphany if it falls on a Sunday the duty side changes each day. If the octave of the Epiphany falls in the middle of the week,
the daily alternation continue up to the first Sunday following. If on the Saturday before Christmas, the weekly alternations have not been completed equally, then the daily roster should run from Christmas Day up to the aforementioned end-point. From Maundy Thursday through to the octave of Easter the duty side changes each day. But the weekly rulers are not changed before Easter Day. The same is also observed in the week following Pentecost up to Trinity Sunday.

The duties of rulers of the choir (OCO-23) (In most instances today it is more convenient to do away with rulers of the choir, and simply have a musical director in charge. The following rubrics omit the action of the ruler(s) asking the intonations from the precentor; this seems unnecessary except in the case of a full recreation. It may indeed be that in ancient times the precentor had the antiphonale, from which he indicated the incipits of the proper chants.)
Simple feasts:
Vespers (OCO-23.1): At vespers the first ruler intones the first, third and fifth antiphons and begins those psalms; the second ruler intones the second and fourth antiphons and those psalms. If there is only one antiphon, it and the first psalm are intoned by the first ruler. If there is a responsory, after the beginning of the fourth psalm the first ruler will select the soloist for the verses from his side; if there are two soloists the second ruler will select the second soloist from the other side.
The principle ruler will intone the hymn; (for the start of the hymn Ave maris stella, all the rulers should always start together, facing the altar. NCC-F-17.1.) he will assign one boy from the choir side, and the secondary ruler will assign one boy from the other side, for the versicle. The principle ruler will intone the antiphon to the Magnificat, and begin the psalm. The principle ruled assigns the Benedicamus to whoever he wishes on the choir side; if it is to be said by two, the second ruler does the same on his side. The rulers begin the memorials together. The second ruler assigns the second Benedicamus to someone on his side; if it is to be said by two, the principle does the same on his side. (The choir is only ruled at vespers, matins-lauds, and mass.) At compline the principal ruler assigns the versicle and the antiphon on Nunc dimittis to whoever he wishes. (During Quadragesima, when the antiphon Media vita or O Rex gloriose is begun again after the psalm, the verse must be sought from the ruler, if it is a single feast by two of the choir together, and on double feasts by the two principal rulers. NCC-F:17.2.)
Matins: The principal ruler asks the intivatory tone from the precentor. The principal ruler and the secondary ruler intone the invitatory and sing the Venite together. The principle ruler will intone the hymn. The rest of matins and lauds can be done as indicated above at vespers.
Prime: At prime the principal ruler intones the antiphon on Quicunque vult, and the responsory Jesu Christe.
Mass (OCO-23.4): The primary ruler gets the incipit of the officium from the precentor and indicates it to the secondary ruler; both begin the officium together and intone the psalm, and the Gloria Patri. The Kyrieleyson, (gradual, Alleluya,) sequence, offertory, Sanctus, Agnus Dei and communion are begun in the same way.
Ferias: at vespers the principal ruler intones the versicle and antiphon on Magnificat and the Benedicamus. At compline it is as above. At matins the principle ruler intones the invitatory (and sings the Venite) and sings the versicles and (at lauds) intones the antiphon on Benedictus. At prime, he intones the responsory.
[Vigils of feasts: at vespers, throughout the week, the principal ruler intones the versicle and gets the incipit of the antiphon on Magnificat and intones it, and pre-intones Benedicamus.(NCC-F-17.4.)]

Double Feasts (23.5): At matins all the rulers sing the whole invitatory before it is repeated by the choir. The principal ruler and his collateral ruler (on the choir side) intone their antiphons and psalms together and begin the hymns; the second ruler and his collateral ruler (on the other side) intone their antiphons and psalms. The collateral rulers intone the versicles and sing the Benedicamus. At prime, the collateral ruler on the choir side intones the responsory.
Mass: 23.6. At mass, the principal ruler ask the precentor for, and indicates the intonation of the Gloria in excelsis to the priest. The rest is done as indicated above for single feasts with two rulers. (On single feasts, if any ruler of the choir is tabled to sing alone, he should not take off his silken cope in the meanwhile. But if he sings with another, his garments should conform to those of the other. If he is down on the roster for reading, he should put on the appropriate dress outside the quire. (NCC-F:18.2.))

The duties of the boys (OCO-24.2).
The boys as a whole will normally be present at vespers, compline, prime and mass; at vigils of the dead, whenever there is a body present and for trentals and anniversaries (i.e. when it is sung solemnly). Boys on the roster for matins (i.e. with special duties) are not obliged to be at the preceding compline. During Advent, and from Septuagesima to Quadragesima, the boy on duty for the week for singing the responsory is to be present at terce and sext to start the antiphons and sing the responsories, when the service is from the Temporal. During Quadragesima he is to be present on every hour of the day to do the same thing (presumably terce, sext, and none).

Vespers on Sundays (OCO-25)
The first antiphon (and psalm) are intoned by the first clerk of the second form on the choir side; the second by his counterpart on the other side. The following intonations are made in order by the succeeding clerks, alternating by sides.
When a clerk intones an antiphon and psalm he faces across the chancel; at the end of the first verse of the psalm he turns to the altar and bows.
After the third psalm three boys exit the quire to robe themselves, two to be candleebbearers, the third a thurifer. (OCO-25.1)
A priest (or clerk) says the chapter from his place, facing the altar.
Two clerks of the superior grade in silken copes (intone the responsory and) sing the responsory (verses) at the quire step (facing the altar); likewise on first vespers of Passion Sunday and first vespers of Palm Sunday. On other first vespers of Sundays (the responsory is intoned) and the responsory (verses) sung by two of the second form in silken copes. (OCO-25.2)
During the penultimate verse of the hymn, the priest leaves the choir to put on a silken cope. After the hymn one boy from the choir side turns to face the altar and sings the versicle.
When one boy sings any versicle or the Benedicamus by himself, he turns to face the altar. (OCO-25.3)
Incense at Vespers. (OCO-25.4)
During the time of the responsory, hymn, and the versicle, the candlebearers enter, with their candlesticks, and meet the officiant at the presbytery step. The officiant put incense into the thurible, blesses, and proceeds to the altar. After genuflecting before the altar, he censes the altar, first in the middle, then on the right side, afterwards the left; next the image over the altar, and the reliquary if one is present. Then he goes round the altar, censing. then the officiant bows towards the altar at last step before the altar. Having passed the thurible to the thurifer, with the candlebearers and thurifer preceeding him, he returns to his stall.
The thrurifer then censes the priest; then the rulers of the choir, starting with the principal ruler; then then those on the superior grade on the decani side, starting with
the dean himself if present; then the superior grade on the cantoris side in the same order; then the second form and first form in the same order. The thurifer bow to each individual after having censed him. This censing takes place while the antiphon on Magnificat is intoned and the canticle is being sung. (OCO-26.1)
The antiphon on Gospel canticle and the canticle itself are intoned by one of the superior grade throughout the year, whether it be Magnificat, Nunc dimittis, or Benedictus.
While the antiphon after the Gospel canticle is being sung, the officiant approaches the quire step to sing the prayer. The boy on duty for the week for reading, wearing a surplice, bring him the book; the candlebearers stand by the officiant.
When the prayer is finished, one boy from the choir side sings Benedicamus Domino.
After the memorials one boy from the other side says the second Benedicamus in the same manner. (OCO-26.2)
(If by chance there are no boys in place in the choir, then the verses are said by individual clerks from the second form, in the aforesaid manner. When all this has been done in this way the priest is to go back to the vestry to take off his silk cope, preceded by the candlebearers, and with the rulers of the choir following after. Then immediately after Deo gracias vespers of St Mary, when it is said in the choir, is begun by any priest on the choir side. This order operates equally at vespers and matins when the choir is ruled throughout the year, save only on double feasts. (NCC-F-40.4.)
Compline: (OCO-27) At compline the first clerk on the second form (on the choir side) intones the antiphon on the psalms; one from the superior grade (on the choir side) intones the psalm. One boy (on the choir side) sings the versicle; all of this is done according to the order and arrangement of the ruler for the week. (These duties are tabled for the week.)
Matins on Sundays (OCO-28.1):
The antiphons are intoned in sequence from lower to higher: 1) the first boy from the first form (on the choir side) intones first antiphon on the psalms: the first boy from the first form on the other side intones the second antiphon; the second boy from the first form on the choir side intones the third antiphon: the fourth antiphon is intoned by a clerk in the second form (on the other side), the fifth by a clerk in the second form (on the choir side): the sixth is intoned by a clerk from the superior grade (or a clerk from the second form (on the other side); the seventh by another clerk from the superior grade (on the choir side); and the eighth and ninth alternate in order in the same way (from the superior grade).
Each of the versicles at matins is sung by a single boy, going from side to side (beginning on the choir side).
After the beginning of the third antiphon one of the boys (from the choir side), dressed in reader’s vestments, brings the book to the lectern; he himself reads the first lesson: the second and third lessons are read in the same way by boys dressed in reader’s vestments , alternating from side to side. The fourth, fifth, and sixth lessons are read by clerks from the second form (or the sixth by one form the superior grade). The seventh, eighth and ninth lessons are read by clerks from the superior grade. (OCO-28.2.)
Three boys in surplices intone the first three responsories at the quire step. The first boy on duty for the week (from the choir side) sings the verse of first responsory alone; the second boy (from the other side) sings the verse of the second responsory; the third boy (from the choir side) sings the verse of the third responsory. The three boys sing together the Gloria Patri verse in the third responsory, and likewise restart the responsory together.
The other responsories are intoned and the verses sung by different clerks in the same order as
the readers, such that each lesson and its corresponding responsory are sung from the same side of the choir and from the same step. (OCO-28.3)
Lauds on Sundays (OCO-28.4.)
The priest intones the versicles before lauds.
The first antiphon is intoned by a clerk of the second form (on the choir side), chosen by the ruler. The second antiphon is intoned by the counterpart on the other side. The remaining antiphons are intoned likewise in the same form. The priest himself should say the versicles before lauds. Everything else is done as at first vespers. (Note that the boys are not normally present at Lauds.)
Prime (OCO-28.5.)
The antiphon on the psalms is intoned by the first clerk in the second form (on the choir side). The antiphon on Quicunque vult is begun one from the superior grade.
The responsory Jesu Christe is begun (and the verses sung) by a boy from the choir side. On double feasts this responsory is led by one in the second form.
The versicle is sung by the same clerk.
The senior cleric leads the Confiteor at prime and compline, throughout the year when it is said. After Benedicamus Domino the clerks go in procession to the chapter house.
Chapter (OCO-30.1.)
The clerks sit in chapter in the following order: the bishop (or senior personage) sits opposite the doorway. On his right and left sit the seniors persons, the canons, the vicars and the other clerks in order off rank. The boys, stand before the others in the space on each side of the lectern, in their order (presumably facing the senior personage).
A boy in a surplice, reads the lesson from the Martyrology. When the lesson is finished, he announces the obits, if any. If there are obits, the priest stands behind the reader and replies: Anime eorum et anime omnium fidelium defunctorum per dei misericordiam in pace requiescant. Then the priest says Preciosa est in conspectu &c. Then the same boy begins another lesson with Jube domine, and concludes the same with Tu autem Domine. The priest, having done the blessing on the lesson, returns to his place; the boy, having finished the lesson, reads the duty roster for the coming week. (OCO-30.2)

Incense at Vespers. (OCO-25.4)
After the third psalm three boys exit the quire to robe themselves, two to be candlebbearers, the third a thurifer. (OCO-25.1)
During the time of the responsory, hymn, and the versicle, the candlebearers enter, with their candlesticks, and meet the officiant at the presbytery step. The officiant put incense into the thurible, blesses, and proceeds to the altar. After genuflecting before the altar, he censes the altar, first in the middle, then on the right side, afterwards the left; next the image over the altar, and the reliquary if one is present. Then he goes round the altar, censing. then the officiant bows towards the altar at last step before the altar. Having passed the thurible to the thurifer, with the candlebearers and thurifer preceeding him, he returns to his stall.
The thrurifer then censes the priest; then the rulers of the choir, starting with the principal ruler; then then those on the superior grade on the decani side, starting with the dean himself if present; then the superior grade on the cantoris side in the same order; then the second form and first form in the same order. The thurifer bow to each individual after having censed him. This censing takes place while the antiphon on Magnificat is intoned and the canticle is being sung. (OCO-26.1)

()n Easter Day and through the week the sepulchre of our Lord is censed after the censing of the altars, that is before the censer proceeds round the altars. Once this has been completed, both priests bow to the altar at the last step before the altar, the bishop afterwards censing the tomb of the Lord Bishop Simon, and the senior priest the tomb of the Lord Bishop Roger. Then
the second priest himself proceeds with the bishop’s chaplain in order to cense the other altars, the senior person on one side and the second on the other, as above. When the censing is done, both meet together at the presbytery door on the south side, and so enter and cense the bishop in his seat. Then the more junior of the two censes the more senior in front of the quire step,
and this should happen on other double feasts when not all the altars are censed. It should be similarly observed that the senior priest after the bishop and the bishop’s own chaplain together cense the bishop at his seat and the junior censes the senior, as above. But if the bishop is present and not performing the office, the more senior priest and the second priest should cense the bishop together, and this indeed should happen if he is occupying his seat: and the rest as above. If the bishop is not present the second priest censes the senior in
the stall of the priest assigned to this duty for the week. (NCC-F-23.4.))

(Presumably the precentor is in charge of assignments in the roster.)

The Sunday Roster: (OCO-31)
The roster indicates in order:
-the rulers of the choir
-the canons in the order in which they are recorded in the Cathedral
roll
-two clerics at a time shall be listed to read the lessons and sing the
responsories for a fortnight at the discretion of the precentor.
-a boy is tabled to read in the chapter office during the wee
-the two boys that carry the candlesticks
-one boy carry the thurible and the water and one boy to be the acolyte
-at mass two boys are tabled for the gradual and two clerks from the superior grade for the Alleluya.
-younger boys are tabled to carry the candlesticks and the water; older boys are tabled to read at chapter, to carry the thurible and to be the acolyte.
-And at mass canons are be tabled to sing and to read the epistle and the gospel in the
order in which they are recorded in the Cathedral roll to carry out those duties.
This arrangement of the roster holds for all Sundays in the year, except during octaves.
Palm Sunday : two from the second form carry the relics in the procession; three from second form are assigned to sing En rex venit; seven boys to sing Gloria laus; and three priests (or clerks from the superior grade) to sing Unus autem. (OCO-32)

The ferial roster (OCO-33.1.)
On a Monday the roster is arranged thus:
-first is written the boy on duty for the week for reading the first lesson (at matins, from the choir side): this same boy’s duty is to minister to the priest by holding the book at matins and at vespers, for saying the collects.
-then is written the clerk on duty for reading the second lesson (from second form, from the other side)
-then the clerk for the third lesson from the superior grade.
-then another duty boy for the week for singing the first responsory (the boys who tabled to read the first lesson and the first responsory in the Sunday roster are called the duty boys of the week for reading and singing for the week).
–then the clerks for singing the second and third responsories are tabled, matching the order of the readers
-on Ember days and Rogation days when the exposition of the Gospel is read at matins, two clerks from the second form are tabled for the first lesson and the first responsory.

During Quadragesima clerks are tabled for reading collation on each weekday, in such a way as to begin with the most senior figure from the choir side; it is read from the superior grade for four weeks: thereafter in the second form; with this proviso that it is to be read in the first form on Wednesday before Easter. When the Annunciation is celebrated during Passiontide, it is read from the superior grade.
Duty boys for the week ought always to be from the choir side: but of those tabled for candlebearing, one should be from one side of the choir and the other from the other side.
The other three are at the discretion of the compiler of the roster. (OCO-34)
Christmas Day: (OCO-35): the tabula will indicate
-1) the rulers of the choir
-2) the readers and singers to read lessons and sing the responsories, such that the lessons are read in ascending order of seniority, and that the most senior person always reads the last lesson. The singers of the responsories are appointed in the same way, so that there is an increase in seniority, so that three senior people who are not reading sing the final responsory, and also such that two canons from the second form read the first and second lessons and a canon from the superior grade the third; the first and second responsories will be sung by two
from the second form, the third responsory by three from the second form; the sixth by three from the superior grade.
For the first mass two rulers of the choir are tabled from the superior grade and two from the second form: for Kyrieleyson, three; for the Laudes at Gloria in excelsis Deo, two; for the gradual, three from the second form; for the Alleluya, three from the superior grade.
For the second mass only two rulers from the second form; for the gradual, two boys; for the Alleluya, two from the superior grade;
Then the boy on duty in chapter, to carry the book for reading the lessons at matins and saying the collects, and the boys tabled in the Sunday roster to bear the candles, the thurible and the water, and for acolyte duty, shall carry out their duties throughout the week in accordance with that roster.
(For the third mass), for the gradual, three from the second form; for the Alleluya three of the most senior persons from the superiorgrade. For the gospel, a canon in order according to the Cathedral roll and the number of days of the common roster; and for the epistle another canon in the same manner and order.

The Common Roster (OCO-36)
As long as the common roster is running the rulers are changed every day. For from the start of the common roster, on every single feast, two rulers from the second form are appointed in order, beginning at the head of the form on each side; on every double feast the two principal rulers are appointed at the will of the precentor, and the secondary rulers following the afore-mentioned order. On each day while the common roster is running, the boy on duty in chapter, and at the mass, for th gospel and epistle are changed, so that the reader in chapter should be changed from Christmas Day, when it occurs on a Sunday, up to the Circumcision, or to the first Sunday following: then the Sunday roster should be followed.

The Roster at Mass on Double Feasts (OCO-36.2.)
For mass no one should be appointed: but on the other days the priests should be appointed, following the order in which they are enrolled, for the gospel and for the epistle; the canons should be appointed both for feasts and for non-festal days, in the order in which they are listed in the roll. If the order in which the priests, deacons and subdeacons are entered in the roll can be extended to the Monday or Tuesday, then the weekly roster should still be used on the Sunday immediately preceding, but if it can be extended beyond the Tuesday, then the weekly table should come into force on the next Sunday after. This rule should hold for all duties, such that on weekdays clerics should be tabled for the performance of the aforementioned duties at the discretion of the one who draws up the roster. And this common roster of the mass and gospel and epistle is to be begun on the Sunday before Christmas Day, except when Christmas Day falls on a Sunday; for then it should start on Christmas Day itself.

(Major double feasts: the bishop when he is present has for some time been accustomed to come in to perform the office in episcopal vesture, that is in a silk cope with mitre, gloves
and staff, and not to remove them until Deus in adjutorium has begun at compline. On major double feasts and single feasts he comes in to his seat in the choir’s habit, and at the fourth or fifth psalm he puts on the silk cope, gloves and mitre, taking up his staff in order to say the chapter; and he puts them off again after the beginning of Deus in adjutorium at compline. (NCC-F-21.)
At first vespers the first antiphon is begun by the person next highest-ranking to whoever is performing the office. And while he starts he faces the choir: but at the end of the first verse
of the psalm itself he bows to the altar; and this turning and bowing should also be observed throughout the year, whatever rank of clerk begins the antiphon. The second antiphon should be started by the highest-ranking person from the other side of the choir, and thus each of the antiphons should run in order of seniority. If he is present, the bishop should say the chapter by himself and in a low voice, wearing a silken cope, without changing his place or his habit. The precentor and two other persons in silk copes, as chosen by the precentor himself, or three other clerics from the superior grade, of whom two will always be from the senior side of the choir, while a third, who should stand in the middle to sing with them at the quire step, comes from the other side, should sing the responsory, which is to say they should begin it and
sing its verse. And this is observed throughout the year, that he or they who sing the verse of the responsory also begin the responsory itself; and it should be immediately sung to the end by the choir but the first word should not be repeated as with graduals: and this both at vespers and matins, and at {any} hour where a responsory is said for the hour: except in single offices of the dead of nine lessons, in which all the responsories but the last are begun by the precentor or succentor. (NCC-F-22.2.)
While the hymn is sung, the two boys who are serving with the thuribles bring two silken copes to the principal priest, one of which he should pass to another priest as he desires, so he may cense the altar along with him. Two boys say the versicle, in surplices and standing side by side in the middle at the choir step. The highest-ranking person on the {duty} side of the choir should start the antiphon upon Magnificat. And if the bishop is present, the precentor pre-intones that antiphon for him. (NCC-F-22.3.)
After the start of the antiphon upon Magnificat, the officiant should proceed with with another senior priest going behind him, to cense the altar with two thuribles of which one should be attended to by the duty boy for the week, the other by another boy at the discretion of the sacristan. (NCC-F-23.1.)
The senior priest should also leave through the north presbytery door to cense the other altars around the presbytery, with a procession of one candlebearer, one thurible and a sacristan carrying a rod in his hand leading the procession, first to the altar of St Mark and second to the altar of St Katherine, thence to the altar of the apostles and last to the altar of All Saints which is called “Salve”. The second priest should go in the aforementioned way through the south presbytery door with the other candlebearer and with the other thurible, first to the altar of St Nicholas, thence to the altar of St Mary Magdalene, finally to the altar of St Stephen. But if the bishop is officiating, he himself censes only the high altar with the senior person18, and he should go round the altar himself and cense its right-hand side, and the said senior person
cense the left-hand side. If the bishop is not present, then the most senior priest should go about the altar censing it, with the second priest standing meanwhile on the north side of the altar; afterwards they should both cense on either side, with the principal priest on the south side. (NCC-F-23.3.))
(The bishop alone does not change position to say the prayer. But if the bishop is not officiating, then the officiant says the prayer at the quire step. Benedicamus is said by two of the second form in surplices, standing side by side in the middle of the quire between the senior and the second rulers. If there is a second Benedicamus, it is said by two boys in surplices standing side by side behind the priest. The officiant should take care that compline does not begin before the rulers have returned to the quire and bowed at the quire step. (NCC-F-24.2.))

(Matins of double feasts: The invitatory with the whole psalm Venite is sung together by the four rulers of the choir, in silk copes at the quire step. The antiphonspon the psalms run in the same manner and order from side to side as they do at first vespers. Each versicle is said by two boys in surplices standing side by side at the quire step. Six lessons are be read from the pulpit, in surplices; the seventh, eighth and ninth are be read from the same place, in silken copes. All the lessons at matins of the day through the year, both at feasts and on weekdays, and on All Souls’ Day, are read from the pulpit, unless the bishop is reading: for in that case he and he alone does not change position. But the readers and cantors at vespers and at matins and at mass, after they have read and sung, should bow to the bishop for a blessing. While the gospels are being read he should put off his bishop’s mitre, and his staff be given to him. While any lesson is read those clerics who are assigned to sing the responsory should take off their black copes and almuces and sit for the duration at the far {i.e. east} end of the first form: and this should also be observed throughout the year at matins, whenever the responsory is sung by two or three. (NCC-F-24.4.))

(The readers and cantors are appointed to read lessons and sing the responsories so that the lessons are read in ascending order of seniority, such that the most senior person always reads the last [except on All Saints’ Day]. It should be noted that on the principal double feasts when the bishop is officiating, while the eighth responsory is sung, if he was not in episcopal robes at matins, he is accustomed to put on a silk cope and gloves and take up his staff, along with his mitre. On reading the ninth lesson the bishop says in this way: Jube domine benedicere;
the choir responds thus: Ora pro nobis pater, then the bishop says the blessing. And the bishop will be in the aforesaid vesture on Christmas night throughout the whole first mass and until lauds have finished being sung, just as is customarily the case on all major feasts: but on the other, lesser feasts when the bishop does not read, at the ninth responsory he puts on his cope, etc., as above, for censing the altar: which he does not take off until Deus in adjutorium
has begun at lauds, and he puts it back on while the fifth psalm is sung at lauds. The cantors of the responsories should also be appointed in the same way, that is so that there should be an increase in seniority, so that three senior people who are not reading should sing the final responsory: and also in such a way that two clerics from the second form should read the first and second lesson: and the third and so on be read by clerics from the upper step. (NCC-F-24.5.))

(During each nocturn, at the second, fifth and eighth lesson, the altar is censed by a priest in a silken cope, drawn from each side of the choir in turn: also the choir, by one boy alone. When the ninth responsory is over, the priest, in a silken cope, begins Te deum laudamus without
changing place. Afterwards, along with his second priest, having himself put incense into his own thurible in front of the step of the quire, the senior priest should cense the altar in the aforementioned way. The other altars should not be censed, but the senior priest should be censed by his second on his way into his stall, that is on the step between the benches [the quire step?], while the candlebearers meanwhile wait at the quire step. (NCC-F-24.9.))

(The eighth responsory is sung by five boys in surplices and their heads covered by amices, and each one carrying a lighted candle, standing at the quire step and facing the altar: and it should be the same on Christmas Day in the first verse of the first responsory which is sung above the high altar facing the choir. NCC-F-24.8.))

(Whenever the bishop is present, he should say a blessing over the placing of the incense in the thuribles by a priest or deacon, without changing his position: the candlebearers should come before the bishop, one to the west side of his seat and the other to the east: and the incense should be blessed in the middle: which should be observed not only during each nocturn, but also at Magnificat or Benedictus: and the choir is also censed by two boys in the aforementioned manner. But when Te Deum laudamus is not said but the ninth responsory is
repeated, then neither altar nor choir should be censed. (NCC-F-24.10.)

The second common roster (OCO-36.3)
The second common roster at mass begins on Palm Sunday, running through the list of priests up to the last one: and then through the list of everyone else, only up to the octave of Easter, whether it has been completed at that point or not.

The third common roster (OCO-36.4)
The third common roster at mass begins on the Sunday before Ascension Day, continuing only through that week; itcommences again on Pentecost, beginning with whoever is next in line,
continuing up to the feast of the Holy Trinity or beyond, depending on the number of priests, as for the distinctions given for the Easter roster, above.

Once the common roster has run its course, the normal succession of the weekly roster returns, starting where it had ended before Christmas. The way this common roster works applies to every common roster throughout the year. (OCO-36.5.)

Adaptation of the Christmas roster for other double feasts. (OCO-37)
The arrangement of the roster for Christmas Day holds true on every double feast of nine lessons throughout the year, except Saint Michael, All Saints, and St Andrew.
On the feast of St Michael, and of St Andrew, the first lesson is read in the first form, the second and third lessons in the second form; the remaining lessons in the superior grade, in ascending order. The responsories are sung in like order, each responsory sung by two, except the
ninth responsory, which is sung by three.
All Saints’ Day (OCO-38): the lessons and responsories are assigned in reverse order: the most
senior person reads the first lesson; and so on in descending order; a boy reads the eighth lesson, but a priest the ninth. The first responsory is sung by two senior clerks; and so on in descending order in same way as the readers, except that five boys sing the eighth
responsory.
Easter Day (OCO-39): the rulers of the choir are all from the superior grade. The first lesson is read by a deacon from among the more senior persons; the folowing readers are assigned in ascending order of seniority so that the most senior person read the third lesson. The first responsory is sung by two canon, and so on in ascending order, so that the third responsory is sung by three senior persons who are not reading lessons. The rest is as on Christmas Day.
Two deacons from the second form carry the oil and chrism for the procession at vespers.
Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday of Easter Week: two deacons from the upper step read the first and second lessons; one of the highest-ranking persons should read the third lesson, such that readers go in descending order of seniority as the days progress. The responsories follow a similar order on these days.

Adaptation of the Easter roster (OCO-40.1.)
The roster for Easter Day holds for all double feasts of three lessons apart from the procession at vespers, except that two are tabled for Ascension Day to carry the relics for the procession, save on the octave of Easter and on the Invention of the Holy Cross.

The Invention of the Holy Cross (OCO-42-1.)
The roster follows the order of the roster on the octave of Easter.

The week after Pentecost (OCO-42.2)
Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday follow the table for the same days in Easter week. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday after Easter and Pentecost two rulers of the choir are tabled from the second form. The lessons are read fromthe superior grade. Two from the second form sing the first responsory; two sing the second; two from the superior grade sing the third. For the gradual on the same days in Easter week and for the first Alleluya on the same days in
the week of Pentecost, two boys are tabled; for the second Alleluya, two from the superior grade.

The weekday roster after the octave of Easter (OCO-43.)
On every Monday, from the octave of Easter up to Rogation Sunday, those on
duty for the week are tabled by name for the first lesson and the first
responsory when there is a ferial service. On Monday after the
octave of Easter two boys sing the Alleluya through the week. In all other regards the arrangement of the weekday roster for the other season is observed.
After Rogation Sunday, if the exposition of the gospel is read on Monday and there is no feast on the Tuesday, two duty boys for the week read and sing on that day, and the Friday, and the Saturday. If the Tuesday is a feast day, or the exposition is to be read, no boy should be entered before the Friday.
The roster for the Monday after Ascension Day is the same in all regards as the roster for the Monday before Rogation Sunday. But on weekdays when the exposition is to read,
deacons from the second form are tabled for the first and second lesson and the first and second responsory. Two from the superior grade are tabled for the third lesson and the third responsory.

Feasts with Invitatory sung by three (OCO-44.) (A list appears in NCC-F-21.)
The rulers for the week remain unchanged, but a third from the superior grade on the choir side, chosen by the precentor, is added in the roster for the invitatory. For the first two lessons, and the first two responsories, boys are entered as in the Sunday roster; the third lessonis read by a subdeacon from the second form, and the third responsory by two subdeacons fromhe same form. For the fourth lesson and the fourth responsory, two deacons from the second form are tabled. For the fifth lesson and fifth responsory, and the rest, clerks from the superior grade are tabled, such that the sixth and ninth responsories are sung by two. For the Alleluya, two from the superior grade.
The invitatory is sung by three on any single feast of any of the apostles and evangelists,on the octaves of Epiphany and the Ascension, on the octave of the apostles Peter and Paul; on the feast of the Blessed Mary Magdalene and of St Lawrence, on the beheading of St John the Baptist, on the octave of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary, on the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, on the feasts of St Michael in Monte Tumba, St Martin and St Nicholas. On the day of the apostles Philip and James the format of the roster whould be as on Thursday in Easter week. (OCO-44.2)

St. Mark’s Day and similar feasts in Eastertide (OCO-45.)
On the feasts of St Mark, St John before the Latin gate, and St Barnabas, when they fall before Pentecost, the roster is like this: for the first lesson, and for the first responsory, two deacons from the second form; for the second and third lessons, and for the second and third
responsories, clerks from the superior grade, such that the third responsory is sung by
two; for the Alleluya, two from the superior grade.
On the other simple feasts when the choir is ruled, from Easter until Pentecost, the first and second lessons, and the first and second responsories, are said by clerks from the second
form; the third lesson and the third responsory by clerks from the upper step. If it is within the octave of the Ascension, the responsory will be sung by two; otherwise it will be sung by one. The Alleluya is sung by two from the superior grade.

Within Octaves (OCO-46.)
Within octaves the running order of the roster for weekdays should be followed. Sunday within an octave should follow the roster for other Sundays, except for the Sundays during the octaves of Christmas, and Epiphany, and the Assumption and the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, on which the ninth responsory is sung by two. The octaves of the apostles should follow the roster of their season.

The three nights before Easter (OCO-47.)
The table for reading lessons and singing responsories should be as for single feasts of nine lessons. Two subdeacons from the same form sing Kyrieleyson; two deacons from the same form sing Domine miserere; two priests sing the verses.

Single Feasts of Nine Lessons (OCO-48.)
These occasions follow the roster for ordinary Sundays. But on the feast of St Sylvester, out of reverence for the season, the ninth responsory is sung by two.

Thee Day hours on the first Sunday of Advent (OCO-49.)
At terce, the principal ruler of the choir for that week begins the hymn or assigns it to be begun by one from the superior grade. The antiphon on the psalms is begun by the second clerk of the second form on the choir side; the remaining antiphons for the other hours continue in order: the aforesaid ruler intones the psalm or assigns someone else from the superior grade. No beginning or intonation of any hymn or psalm should be made on any day throughout the year, except on the superior grade, when the choir is not ruled. The responsory at terce is said in the second form, by the clerk next to the one who began the antiphon. The officiant says the chapter and the collect changing neither position nor vestment. The same manner and order should be observed in saying the other hours.

Second Vespers on the first Sunday of Advent (OCO-49.2.)
The antiphon on the psalms is begun by the first clerk (who is a subdeacon) on the choir side; the second antiphon by his counterpart on the other side; the remaining antiphons run in
order in the same way. This order is observed on all Sundays throughout
the year. The responsory is sung by one from the second form, chosen by the ruler of the choir,
changing neither position nor vestment. The responsory is sung this way on every Sunday when the service is from the Temporal and there is a responsory, except on Palm Sunday, for then the responsory is sung by one from the superior grade. (At second vespers on Sundays the responsory is said only during Advent and Quadragesima. Compline is not changed.

Other Sundays throughout the year (OCO-50.)
The service for each Sunday throughout the year is performed in the same way as on the first Sunday of Advent, when the service is from the Temporal; except that on no Sunday is a responsory said at vespers; and except that on Sundays during Quadragesima the responsory is said at both complines by one from the second form at the discretion of the ruler for the week; and except that on the last four Sundays of Quadragesima three verses after the antiphon for the Nunc dimittis are be said at both complines, on Saturdays from the superior grade and on Sundays from the second form: on Palm Sunday they should be said from the superior grade. Similarly, on any feast of nine lessons, the three verses after the antiphon on Nunc dimittis are said at both complines through the last four Sundays of Quadragesima in the aforesaid manner, except on the Annunciation: then at both complines the verse is said from the superior grade.
On Passion Sunday and Palm Sunday a single antiphon is said before the psalms in each nocturn, of which the first is begun in the first, form, the second in the second form, and the third in the superior grade. (OCO-50.2)
[Easter Day]: Similarly a single antiphon is said before the psalms at matins and that is begun in the superior grade; and a single antiphon at lauds. (OCO-50.3)
Sundays in Eastertide: (OCO-50.4): On the octave of Easter five antiphons are said at lauds, in the superior grade; and the Sunday next before Ascension Day the five antiphons at lauds are
said in the second form. Excepting certain things which pertain to the Sunday
roster of Eastertide, and excepting the middle Sundays after the start of the
histories, a single antiphon is said before the psalms at lauds; and except during Eastertide: for then, on Saturdays only one antiphon is said before the psalms.

Ferias in Advent: (OCO-51.)
At matins one from the second form (after asking it from the precentor) sings the invitatory in place of the ruler for the week. The hymn is begun in thesduperior grade, as appointed by the ruler: everything else pertaining to the general duties of the ruler is carried out by the same ruler, either in person or deputed to someone else. The first antiphon is begun by the first boy from the first form (on the choir side), the second antiphon by one opposite him; the remaining antiphons run in order such that the fifth is begun by the first clerk of the second form on the choir side.
At lauds the first and third antiphons are begun by the aforesaid two boys. The rest are begun in the second form following the order of clerks that has previously been begun: everything else as regards matins and lauds is performed as on the Sunday; except that on weekdays all the hymns are begun from the upper step. The priest does not change his habit or position
to say the collects, either at vespers or matins. The altar is not censed at lauds or at vespers (at the Magnificat or at the Benedictus). (OCO-51.2)
At prime the antiphon upon the psalms is begun by the first boy of the first form on the choir side: the first cleric from the second form begins the antiphon upon Quicunque vult: the responsory is said by one from the first form: all the rest is as on the preceding Sunday, except that on this weekday at all the hours the preces are made with prostrations.
At terce, the boy on duty for the week for the responsory begins the antiphon on the psalms and sings the responsory; the rest is as on the preceding Sunday.
At sext everything is done as at terce.
At none the antiphon on the psalms is begun by the first clerk of the second form: the responsory is sung by the boy next to him. (OCO-51.3)
At vespers the first antiphon is begun by the first boy from the first
form on the choir side: the second by the one opposite him in the same form; the others run
along the same form in order. The boy on duty for the week for the responsory
should sing the responsory: everything else is as above at lauds.
At compline the antiphon on the psalms is begun by one or another
boy from the first form at the discretion of the weekly ruler.
The rest is as for Sunday, except on ferias the preces with prostrations are made. (OCO-51.4)

Weekdays throughout the year (ferias) (OCO-52.)
The above manner and order of service is be observed on every weekday throughout the year, when the service is from the Temporal, except that outside Advent and Septuagesima, the boy on duty for the week for the responsory is not expected to be present at terce or at the other hours of the day that follow: and except during Quadragesima; because then at none, the antiphon upon the psalms should be sung by the duty boy for the week and the responsory should be sung by the same. At compline the responsory is sung by one from the first form. (At vespers outside of Advent and Lent a responsory is not said on weekdays.) (OCO-52.1)
During Eastertide at matins, lauds and vespers, only one antiphon is said before the psalms; the preces in prostration are not done. During Quadragesima all the hours of the day are said before mass. After mass Placebo and the vespers of the day follow without a break, and then vespers of St Mary. After dinner, before the bell for collation is rung, vigils of the dead is said: then a sermon is read in collation by some cleric from the second form, without his changing vestment. Compline follows. (OCO-52.2)

Christmas Day (OCO-53.)
On Christmas Day at first vespers, the first antiphon on the psalms is begun by one of the persons next highest-ranking after the officiant. The second antiphon is begun by the highest-ranking person from the other side of the choir, and thus each runs in order of seniority. The bishop says the chapter in a silken cope, without changing his place. The precentor and two other persons chosen by the precentor sing the responsory in silken copes. (OCO-53.1.)
While the hymn is sung, the two boys who are serving as thurifers bring two silken copes to the senior priest, one of which he passes to another priest as he desires, so he may cense the altar. Two boys say the versicle in surplices. The highest-ranking person on the choir side begins the antiphon on Magnificat. If the bishop is present, the precentor pre-intones that antiphon for him. (OCO-53.2.)
Censing the Altar: (OCO-54.)
After the start of the antiphon, the officiant proceeds, with another senior priest beneath him in rank, to cense the altar with two thuribles, of which one will be attended to by the duty boy for the week, the other by another boy at the discretion of the sacristans. (54.1.)
If the bishop is present, the second priest, along with the bishop’s chaplain, should cense the other altars, the more senior person in the eastern part of the Cathedral, and the second should go in the western part. When the censing is done, both should meet together at the presbytery door on the south side, and so enter and cense the bishop on his seat. Then the more junior of the two should cense the more senior in front of the quire step. If the bishop is not present the second priest should cense the senior, in the seat assigned to the duty priest for the week. (OCO-54.2.)
The bishop alone does not change position for saying the collect.
Benedicamus is said by two from the second form wearing surplices. (OCO-54.3.)
At compline, one clerk from the superior grade begins the antiphon on the psalms. A boy should say the versicle, changing neither his position nor vestment. One of the higher ranked clerks begins the antiphon after Nunc dimittis, at the discretion of the ruler. (OCO-54.4.)
At matins the antiphons on the psalms run in the same manner and order from side to side as they do at first vespers. Each versicle is said by two boys in surplices at the quire step. Six lessons should be read in surplices; the seventh, eighth and ninth, in silken copes. (OCO-54.5.)
Each of the responsories is sung in surplices at the quire step. The readers and cantors at vespers and at matins and at mass, after they have read and sung, bow to the bishop for a blessing. (OCO-54.6.)
During each nocturn, at the second, and fifth, and eighth lesson, the high altar is censed by a priest in a silk cope, drawn from each side of the choir in turn: the choir is censed by one boy alone. When the final responsory is over and the gospel Liber generacionis has been sung, the officiant, in a silken cope, begins Te Deum laudamus without changing place. Afterwards the officiant, accompanied by his second priest, having put incense into the thuribles before the quire step, cense the altar in the aforementioned way: but the other altars are be censed. (OCO-54.7.)
Whenever the bishop is present, he says a blessing over the placing of the incense in the thuribles by a priest or deacon, without changing his position. (OCO-54.8.)
When Te Deum laudamus is finished, mass is sung immediately: when mass is finished, the principal priest says the versicle before lauds. The antiphons on the psalms of lauds run along the superior grade in the same order as the other antiphons, as was previously started and not finished. The chapter and all the rest that happens at matins isperformed in the same manner and order as at vespers, except that at matins there is censing except of the main altar; the final Benedicamus is said by two boys in surplices. (OCO-54.9.)
At prime the antiphon on the psalms is begun from the superior grade: the antiphon on Quicumque vult is begun by the second highest-ranking person on the choir side. Jesu Christe is said by one from the second form at the discretion of the second ruler, without their changing place or vestment. All else that happens at prime is unchanged. (OCO-54.10.)
At terce, the antiphon on the psalms is begun from the superior grade: the responsory is sung from the second form, at the discretion of the second ruler. The same manner is observed in saying the other hours. (OCO-54.11.)
At second vespers the first antiphon on the psalms is begun by one of the canons on the superior grade (on the choir side) at the discretion of the precentor: the second in similar manner on the other side: and so on for the rest. The responsory is sung by three senior canons at the discretion of the precentor. All the rest is as above at matins and at first vespers. Once the first Benedicamus is finished, all the deacons should go in procession from the altar of St Nicholas through the middle of the quire to the altar of St Stephen, wearing silken copes
and carrying lighted candles: and once the responsory has been sung there, and the memorial of St Stephen is completed, they should go back in procession to the quire singing a responsory of St Mary; all the deacons should wait there, until the prayer of that commemoration is finished. (The second) Benedicamus is sung by two deacons.
At compline, the antiphon upon the psalms is begun by a canon from the superior grade. The rest is unchanged. (OCO-54.12.)
(If the bishop is present he should say the versicle before lauds from his seat. (NCC-F-24.11.)

The adaptation of the same for other double feasts (OCO-55.)
The service is carried out in the same way on other major double feasts of nine lessons: namely these: at Epiphany, the Purification; on the feast of the Holy Trinity, the Assumption, and the Nativity of the Blessed Mary, and on the feast of Relics, and on the feast of All Saints; with the exception that on the feast of All Saints a reverse order is be oberved for reading the lessons and singing the responsories, as regards the seniority of the readers and cantors; the eighth responsory is sung by five boys in surplices and their heads covered by amices, and each one carrying a lighted candle; and with the exception that on these double feasts the Gospel is not sung at matins, except at Epiphany. Moreover on all of the other aforesaid double feasts every lesson is read in surplices.

Minor Double Feasts (OCO-56.)
On minor double feasts, such as the day of St Thomas the martyr, the Annunciation, the Nativity of St John the Baptist, the feast of the apostles Peter and Paul, the feast of St Michael and of St Andrew, the aforesaid manner of service may be observed, except that at first vespers and at second vespers only one antiphon is said on the psalms, and that is begun from the superior grade at the discretion of the precentor. On these feasts there is no censing except of the main altar, nor, at matins, is there any censing of the altar or choir during the nocturns. The final lesson is always read by the most senior on the choir side. (OCO-56.2.)
On the feasts of Michael and St Andrew the first lesson is read in the first form, the second and third lessons in the second form; the first and second responsory in the first form; the third in the second form. No responsory is sung by three except the ninth. (OCO-56.3.)
All the antiphons on the psalms of lauds run along in the second form as directed by the ruler. (OCO-56.4.)

Vespers on the vigil of Easter (OCO-57.)
The antiphon on the psalms is begun, without the choir being ruled, by one of the canons on the superior grade. The antiphon on the Magnificat is intoned by the senior figure on the choir side. The postcommunion is said instead of the collect at vespers and Ite missa est in place of Benedicamus.

Easter Day (OCO-58.)
The three antiphons on the psalms run in the same manner as the first three on Christmas Day; and the three lessons and three responsories as in the third nocturn of Christmas Day. The altar is not censed on this day except at Te deum laudamus and at Benedictus.
At lauds the antiphons and so forth run in the same manner as on Christmas night. (OCO-58.1.)
At prime and the other hours the same manner for beginning the antiphons is observed as on Christmas Day. But throughout the whole of this week, the priest says the versicles before the collect. (OCO-58.2.)
At second vespers the rulers on the choir side begin Kyrieleyson facing the choir. The antiphon on the psalms is begun from the superior grade, at the discretion of the precentor. The gradual is sung without change of vestment by two of those who sang at mass, with the same verse. Likewise the Alleluya by two of those from the superior grade who sang at mass. All the rest up to the procession is as on Christmas Day.
After Benedicamus, the procession sets out towards the font through the south presbytery door with the cross, candlebearers, thurible, oil and chrism, and a boy carrying the book before the priest; everyone should be clad in albs, except the boy who carries the book before the priest, who should be in a surplice, and except the priest who will likewise be in a surplice with a silken cope. The rulers of the choir begin the antiphons that are sung while going out and returning. When the procession is over as described in the Ordinal and the memorial of St Mary is finished, Benedicamus is said by two boys. (OCO-58.3.)
At compline the antiphon is begun by one on the superior grade. (OCO-58.4)

Easter Monday (OCO-58.5.)
The antiphon on the psalms is begun from the superior grade. The lessons and responsories are read and sung from the superior grade, in surplices. All the rest is as on Easter Day, except that at lauds a single antiphon is sung, which is begun from the superior grade.
After Benedictus the procession sets out to the cross through the west quire door with the cross and candlebearers and thurifer and a boy carrying the book before the priest; they are all in the same vesture as for vespers, except for the one who is carrying the cross, who should be in a surplice. (OCO-58.6.) At the station two from the superior grade say the verse, turned to face
the choir, in surplices. Once the procession is over, they should return to the choir. And the rest should happen as above for the procession at vespers. (OCO-58.7.)
At prime and at the other hours everything happens as on Easter Day. At vespers and compline everything happen in the same manner as on Easter Day. (OCO-58.8.)

Tuesday and Wednesday of Easter Week. (OCO-59.)
The manner and order of service is the same in all regards as that of the service on Monday.

The octave day of Easter (OCO-60.1.)
At vespers the antiphon on the psalms is begun from the superior grade at the discretion of the ruler: the antiphon on Magnificat is begun by one of the senior figures on the choir side: the rest is on Easter Day at vespers, except for the gradual and Alleluya and the procession.
Compline happens as on double feasts of nine lessons. (OCO-60.2.)
At matins the antiphons on the psalms, the lessons and the responsories run along the superior gradeat the discretion of the precentor, in surplices.
At lauds, the antiphons run in the same way along the superior grade: all the rest happens as above for the weekdays except the procession. (OCO-60.3.)
At prime and at the other hours the same manner is observed as on double feasts of nine lessons. (OCO-60.4.)
At second vespers the antiphons on the psalms and on the Magnificat are intoned from the superior grade, at the discretion of the ruler: the rest for vespers and compline is as for double feasts of nine lessons. (OCO-60.5)

The adaptation of this service for other double feasts in Eastertide (OCO-61.)
The order and manner of service of this day should be observed on the Annunciation, in Eastertide, and on the Invention of the Holy Cross: except that then at both vespers the responsory is said as on double feasts of nine lessons. (OCO-61.1)

At vespers on the Thursday, Friday and Saturday of the weeks of Easter and Pentecost, the antiphons on the psalms are intoned in the superior grade. The versicle is sung by two boys; the rest as on the Monday of those weeks.
At matins the antiphon on the psalms is intoned in the superior grade; the lessons
and responsories are said in surplices. (OCO-61.2.)
At lauds, the antiphon is intoned in the second form: all the rest should is as at first vespers on those days. (OCO-61.3.)
At prime and at the other hours everything is as on Sundays in their season. (OCO-61.4.)

Ascension: (OCO-62.)
On the vigil of Ascension Day at vespers the antiphon on the psalms is intoned by one of the seniors on the dean’s side. Three seniors sing the responsory: the antiphon on Magnificat is intoned by the officiant: all the rest at vespers and compline is as on the other major double feasts. (OCO-62.1.)
At matins the same order and manner for intoning the antiphons and reading the lessons and singing the responsories is observed as on Easter Day.
At prime, and at the other hours, the same manner and order are observed as on the octave of Easter; except that at second vespers the responsory is sung by three seniors. (OCO-62.2.)

Pentecost (OCO-62.3.)
The manner and order of the service at Pentecost is the same in all respects as on Ascension Day.
The service of the three days following follows the manner and order of the same weekdays in Easter week as regards the intoning of antiphons, the reading of lessons and singing of responsories. (OCO-62.4.)

St. Thomas the Apostle (OCO-63.)
On the vigil the antiphon on the psalms at vespers is intoned on the superior grade at the discretion of the ruler. Two from the upper step sing the responsory. Two boys in surplices sing the versicle. (OCO-63.1.)
The antiphon on Magnificat isintoned from the superior grade. Two from the second form sing the first Benedicamus: one singes the second Benedicamus, without changing place or vestment. All the rest for vespers and compline should be as on Sundays.
At matins the invitatory is sung by three in silken copes. The first and second antiphons are intoned in the first form: the third by a subdeacon in the second form on the choir side; the fourth by a deacon in the same form on the other side. The fifth antiphon and so on on the superior grade at the discretion of the ruler. The lessons are read, without a change of vestment; the third, sixth and ninth responsory are sung in surplices. (OCO-63.3.)
At lauds the antiphons run from side to side at the discretion of the rulers, keeping to the same order that was begun with the starting of the third and fourth antiphons; all the rest is as at first vespers. At prime and at the other hours everything should happen as on Sundays. (OCO-63.4.)

Feast with triple invitatory (OCO-64.)
The foregoing manner and order of service should be observed on all feasts and octaves of nine lessons when the invitatory is triple. On the feast day of the apostles Philip and James the manner and order of the service is that of the Thursday of Easter week; except that on this occasion at first vespers the responsory is sung by two from the superior grade, and there is no procession. (OCO-64.1.)
On the feasts of St Mark and of St John before the Latin gate, and of St Barnabas the apostle when it falls before Pentecost, the antiphon on the psalms at first vespers is intoned in the superior grade; all the rest at vespers and at compline is as on feasts of nine lessons with triple invitatory. At matins the antiphons on the psalms are intoned in the superior grade. The lessons and responsories are said without change of vestment except for the third responsory which is said in surplices. (OCO-64.2.)
Everything else at matins and at the other hours of the day is as on the feasts of nine lessons of the other apostles. (OCO-64.3.)

Single Feasts of Nine Lessons (OCO-65.)
On lesser single feasts of nine lessons the manner and order of service of ordinary Sundays which have a responsory sung in the second form is followed; except that the antiphon on the psalms and the responsory at first vespers are said in the superior grade: on the feasts of St Vincent, St Dionysius, and St Clement. On other simple feasts in which the choir is ruled, from Easter to Pentecost, at both vespers and at the other hours of the day everythingi s done as on other single feasts of the other season. At matins the first and second lessons and the first and second responsories are said in the second form, and the third lesson and third responsory on the upper step, without change of vestments.
Within octaves when the choir is ruled, at vespers and at the other hours of the day, everything is done as on single feasts in their season in which the choir is ruled. At matins, the first,
second and third antiphons are intoned in the first form, the others in the second
form. On weekdays within the octave of Ascension Day, the first antiphon is intoned in the first form, the second and third in the second form; the lessons and responsories are as on other weekdays. At lauds, it is as on the lesser single feasts in their season on which the choir is ruled. But on Sundays within octaves the manner and order of service is observed as on other Sundays, except for those exceptions that are listed in the tables for those Sundays. (OCO-65.1.)

Feast of three lessons without rulers and at commemorations of Blessed Mary (OCO-65.2.)
The manner and order should be observed as on weekdays in all respects, except that on certain such feasts and at commemorations of the Blessed Mary, the invitatory is sung by two:
January: St Julian, bishop and confessor; the second feast of St Agnes.
February: St Blaise; St Juliana. If these aforesaid feasts fall within Septuagesima the invitatory is single. Moreover all the feasts where the choir is not ruled from the octave of Easter until Pentecost have a double invitatory. Likewise all such feasts which fall during the week of Holy Trinity (and Corpus Christi (NCC-F-45.)).
June: Sts Marcellinus and Peter; St Boniface and his companions; Primus and Felicianus; Basilides, Cyrinus, Nabor and Nazarius; Crescentius; Vitus and Modestus; Marcus and Marcellianus, martyrs; Gervasius and Prothasius; The Translation of St Edward; John and Paul.
July: Processus and Martinian; The Seven Brothers, martyrs; The Translation of St Benedict; St Kenelm; The Seven Sleepers; St Sampson; Felix, Faustinus, Simplicius and Beatrice, martyrs; Sts Abdon and Sennen, martyrs.
August: St Stephen, pope and martyr; Oswald, king and martyr; Sixtus, Felicissimus and Agapitus; Cyriacus and his companions; Tiburtius; Hippolytus; Rufus; Felix and Adauctus, martyrs.
September: The Translation of St Cuthbert; Cyprian and Justin; Cosmo and Damian.
October: Marcus and Marcellus and Apuleius; Nigasius and his companions; Calixtus, pope; The Eleven Thousand Virgins; Crispin and Crispinian, martyrs.
November: The Crowned Saints; Brice, bishop and confessor; Anianus, confessor; The octave of St Martin.
December: the octave of St Andrew, apostle.

Throughout the year the invitatory is said by two within octaves when the choir is not ruled, when the service is of the octave. (NCC-F-45.))

(Censing the altar on single feasts and sundays and on and within ruled octaves, and on commemorations of blessed Mary (LVV-F-37.)
While the versicle is sung, the candlebearers come in, and having taken up the candlesticks they join the priest at the presbytery step: the boy with the thurible proceeds up to the priest, saying Benedicite: the priest replies Dominus blessing it, Ab ipso sanctificetur in cuius honore
incensum cremabitur, in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti
.
He places the incense in the thurible and proceeds to the altar and, having genuflected
before the altar to kiss the ground, he censes the altar first three times in the middle then three times on the right and afterwards three times on the left; then three times to the statue of the Blessed Mary (this is in the middle of the altar), afterwards the reliquary, then he goes around the altar censing the altar. When he has finished, the priest bowes to the altar at the last step before the altar and, with the candlebearers and thurifer going before, if the bishop is present – that is, in his seat – he censes him and him alone, and so take his place in the stall assigned to this office on the left hand side of the choir. (NCC-F-36.)
Censing the Choir. Then a boy censes the priest in the same place. Afterwards he censes the rulers of the choir, starting with the principal ruler: then those on the duperior grade on the dean’s side, starting with the dean, that is, censing it outside and inside the benches, beginning with him who stands nearest in his stall if the dean is not present. After that, the superior grade on the precentor’s side in the same order: after that, the second forms and the first in the same order, and in this way, that the boy shall bow to each clerk in censing them. But if the bishop is officiating, his own chaplain will cense him at his seat. This takes place while the antiphon on Magnificat is begun and Magnificat is being sung. The candlebearers do not continue to accompany the priest while he takes his place in his stall, but rather one of the candlebearers stands on the quire step on the left hand side of the choir, the remaining one on the same step on the right hand side of the choir, both turned to face each other until the priest has been censed in the same place; and then they return to the highest step of the altar where they are accustomed to put down the candlesticks with their candles, and wait there until Magnificat is said. And so while the antiphon upon Magnificat is sung, the priest moves to the quire step and the boy on weekly duty for the lessons brings him the book with a light, while still wearing a surplice: then once the candlebearers have returned to stand by the priest, one facing the other, the priest himself says the prayer in the same place. And this is to be observed throughout the year both at vespers and at matins at Magnificat and Benedictus whenever the choir is ruled, except only on double feasts: for then the altar is censed by two priests and the choir by two boys, as described above. (NCC-F-38.))

Blessing salt and water on Sundays (OCO-67.)
On the first Sunday in Advent, after chapter, the duty priest for the week, along with a deacon and subdeacon holding the text and a boy holding the thurible and candlebearers and an
acolyte holding the cross, all vested in albs and turned to face the altar in the middle of the presbytery, makes the holy water at the quire step, (the priest) in a silken cope; the water boy, wearing a surplice, assists him by holding the salt while it is blessed and carrying the holy water. The duty boy of the week for reading at matins, wearing a surplice, assists the priest by holding the book.

The Asperges and procession before mass on the first Sunday in Advent.
The priest approaches the principal altar and sprinkles it on every side. On returning he first sprinkles his assistants in the order given, starting with the acolyte: returning to the quire step, he sprinkles each of the clerks who should come up to him at that same place, starting with the most senior. If the bishop is present, the aspersion of the clerks falls to him. After the aspersion of the clerks, he sprinkles the layity standing on either side in the presbytery. When the aspersion has been completed, the priest returns to the quire step to say the versicle and prayer. (OCO-67.)
Then the procession goes in this order: the holy water goes first, then the rest should follow in the order aforesaid. Next the boys and those from the second form in the order in which they placed in the choir: the rest from the superior grade in the same order as they are placed in
chapter, without changing their vestments. However, the bishop, if present) shall wear his mitre and carry his staff. The procession leaves through the north presbytery door, and goes around the presbytery. The priest, in passing, asperses each altar: then, going down the south aisle of the nave, they come by way of the font and proceed tothe rood; and there make a station, the priest and his aforementioned ministers standing in the middle in order, such that the water boy and the acolyte stand at the steps in front of the rood. When the customary prayers have been said, they enter the quire, and the priest says the versicle and prayer at the quire step. Then he goes with his ministers to asperse the canons’ cemetery, praying for the dead. (OCO-69.)

The procession before mass on other Sundays (OCO-70.)
This foregoing manner and order of service for the procession is generally be observed on every ordinary Sunday throughout the year. However, on the Sundays from Septuagesima to Quadragesima a verse is said after the antiphon during the station at the step before the cross, by two clerics from the second form, turned towards the people, without having changed their vestments. Similarly, from the Sunday after the octave of Easter to the first Sunday before Ascension Day, a verse is said by two from the second form wearing surplices. On that Sunday before Ascension the verse should be said by three from the superior grade, wearing surplices, in the pulpitum.

Palm Sunday Procession (OCO-70.2.)
On Palm Sunday certain things are added to the procession: the water is blessed outside the quire, as on any double feast that falls on a Sunday, and the water is sprinkled after
terce. Then the blessing of the flowers or boughs is done. While the blessed palms are distributed, the shrine is prepared with the relics, from which the body of our Lord should hang in a casket, and be carried to the first station by two clerks from the second form, not following the procession, but coming to meet the procession in the first station, without having changed their vestments, with a light preceding them in a lantern. And thus the procession goes, with the precentor intoning the antiphon and with the most senior priest officiating at the procession, and with banners going before them, first around the cloister, and from there
out through the door of the canons’ cemetery to the place of the first station, which is made at the far east side of the lay cemetery, where first of all the Gospel is read by the deacon, vested for the procession. Then three clerks, without changing their vestments, and turned towards the people, sing the verse in front of the relics. After each verse, the officiant intones the
antiphon turned towards the relics, which the choir sing, with a genuflection; a genuflection is also made by the officiant first, with the choir.
Then the procession should go to the place of the second station, with the precentor intoning the antiphon; the second station is made before the door where the boys sing Gloria, laus. Then the procession goes to the third station, before the other door of the cathedral on the same side, where three priests standing in the door itself and turned towards the people (without
having changed their vestments) say the verse.
Then the procession goes to the west door, and there it enters beneath the casket of relics raised across the door, and makes a station before the rood. At this station the
officiant intones the antiphon, with the cross now uncovered. The choir responds with a genuflection. The priest intones the antiphon thrice, each time lifting his voice higher, making a genuflection together with the choir. Affter he has intoned it for the third time the choir
continues on with the whole of the antiphon at the station. Then they enter the quire, the cross on the principal altar also having been uncovered; and it remains uncovered for the rest of the
day.

Procession on Chritmas Day (OCO-71.)
After terce the procession go around the cloister, with three acolytes carrying three crosses, and with two thuribles. Then they proceed in the aforesaid way, with three from the superior grade singing the prose, in the middle of the procession; the same clerics conclude the prose in the station before the rood. Everything is as indicated above.

Procession on Double Feasts of Nine Lessons (OCO-72.)
The manner of the procession on Christmas day applies to all double feasts of nine
lessons throughout the year that have a procession; except that on the others no prose is said, and except for the Purification of the Blessed Mary; on this feast, while terce is sung, the officiant puts on the ceremonial vestments, as do all his ministers, as for mass. After terce the same priest, with his ministers, goes in procession to the altar, and blesses the candles in front the altar, and sprinkles them with holy water: then he censes them. Then he goes back to his stall while the candles are distributed. Once the candles have been distributed, the procession goes in the aforesaid manner. At the station before the rood, three from the superior grade sing the verse in the pulpitum, facing the people, without changing their vestments. The rest as above.

Procession on Easter Day (OCO-72.)
The procession on Easter Day is done in the same manner as on Christmas Day, except that on Easter Day the verse is said in the pulpitum as on the Feast of the Purification.
On the octave of Easter the procession is done in the same way as on other Sundays, apart from the vestments, and except that on this day the verse is said in the pulpitum as on Easter Day.

Procession on Ascension Day (OCO-74.)
The procession is ordered as on Easter Day, except that on this day the banners go before the procession, first the lion, then the lesser banners in order, and in the last place the dragon. Then between the subdeacon and the thurifer two from the second form carry the reliquary, in silken copes. The deacon also carries the relics on this day, at the discretion of the sacristan. The procession proceeds through the middle of the quire, and goes out through the west door, proceeding along the north side, and going round the outside of the whole cathedral and its
churchyard; and they enter the cathedral through the aforesaid door as on Palm Sunday. The rest as on Christmas Day.

Procession at Pentecost (OCO-75.)
The procession is ordered as on Christmas Day, but it proceeds to the churchyard as on Palm Sunday, and thus goes on without a station and enters through the west door of the Cathedral. The rest is as on Christmas Day.

Ash Wednesday (OCO-76.)
After the receiving of the ashes, the procession goes through the middle of the quire to the south door of the Cathedral, with the most enior persons going first, preceded by the banner of hair-cloth. Then the bishop or the officiant ejects the penitents one by one by hand, with the assistance of an archdeacon if the bishop is present. When they have been ejected the
procession returns, keeping to the same customary order.

Weekday processions in quadragesima (OCO-77.)
Through the whole of Quadragesima, until Maundy Thursday, on the Wednesday and Friday of each week there is customarily a procession to the altars of the Cathedral in order; the first day to the altar of St Martin, then to the others in order, except when a feast of nine lessons prevents it. And so on the Wednesday of the first week, when None has been sung, the procession goes, before the start of mass, but without a cross, through the presbytery door to the altar of St Martin, the priest with his ministers wearing albs. When the responsory has been sung, the clerks prostrate themselves in the order of their ordering in the choir, such that the priest, accompanied by a deacon on his right and a subdeacon on his left, makes his prostration at the altar steps with Kyrieleyson and the psalm Miserere mei Deus. When the preces are finished, he says the prayer standing; when that is finished and the litany has been sung, without change of vestment, by two from the second form, as far as Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis, the procession, going around the presbytery, enters the quire through the west quire door, while the aforesaid two finish the litany at the quire step. Then priest with his ministers depart without any prayer being said. The procession is made in the same manner and order on every (Wednesday and) Friday throughout Quadragesima.

Procession on Maundy Thursday (OCO-78.)
After None, a procession goes to the cathedral door, as on Ash Wednesday, and the penitents should be present in the churchyard. Then, if the bishop be present, the principal
archdeacon reads the lesson standing on the side of the penitents outside
the door, wearing a silken cope; if the bishop is absent it is not read. Once
the lesson is finished, he intones the antiphon twice consecutively; then the
deacon on the penitents’ side, in an alb, says Flectamus genua, and the
deacon on the bishop’s side, in a similar vestment, says Levate. This is done
three times; then, taking their hand, they restore the penitents one by one
to the church, with the assistance of the archdeacons. Then the procession goes back to the quire in the usual manner.

The Procession on Easter Even (OCO-79.)
Once the clerks have gathered together in the quirer, the officiant dresses in a silk cope, the deacon in a dalmatic, and the subdeacon in a tunicle, with their ministers, with no light in the candles or fire in the thurible; with someone from the first form in a surplice carrying the candle which is to be lit on a special pole going at the front of the procession after the water-bearer through the middle of the quire. He goes in procession to the font in order to bless the new fire, with the quire following, the most senior figures going first;he blesses the fire at the column on the south side. After this the procession returns to the quire in the usual manner with two from the second form singing some verses, in surplices.

The Procession to the Font on Easter Even (OCO-80.)
When the sevenfold litany, which is sung by seven boys in surplices standing in the middle of the quire, is finished, and the fivefold litany begun by five deacons from the second form likewise standing in the middle of the quire in surplices, as far as the words Sancta Maria ora pro nobis, the procession goes to the font with two deacons from the second form, in albs, carrying the oil and chrism, walking side by side between a subdeacon and a thurifer. Also, the special candle for blessing the font, lit, goes at the front of the procession; and this is to be
carried by one of the first form. The procession goes out through the south presbytery door and come to the font in procession on the south side of the Cathedral.
When the litany is finished, the officiant, turned to the east, takes his place for the blessing of the font, with the ministers standing by the font in order: the deacon stands on the right next to the priest, the subdeacon on the left. The one who brings the chrism stands next to the
deacon; and he who brings the oil, next to the subdeacon. The one who carries the cross will be opposite the priest, facing him, and next to him stand the two candlebearers in the same way. In the consecration of the font, neither oil nor chrism should be poured in, unless someone is to be baptised.
When the ministering of the font is finished, three clerks from the superior grade in silken copes sing Rex sanctorum . At the end of the first verse the choir repeats the same, and thus they enter the quire in procession. ((OCO-80.2)

The procession before Matins on Easter Day (OCO-81.)
Two senior priests in surplices, having first censed the sepulchre with great reverence, lay the body of the Lord on the altar; then they lift the cross from the sepulchre while the senior priest
begins the antiphon, and thus, going through the south presbytery door, and returning through the middle of the quire, with the thurifer and candlebearers preceding them, they take it to the altar of St Martin, singing as they go. Then, when the senior priest has said the versicle and the prayer at that place, matins is begun after the proper ringing of the bells.

The procession to the Font on Easter Day (OCO-82.)
After the first Benedicamus the procession sets out towards the font, in surplices, in the same manner and order as when the procession goes to bless the font on the vigil of Easter, except that on this occasion no candle goes in front of the procession. Then three boys sing Alleluya at the station before the font, without changing vestments. After the repeat of the Alleluya, the priest, having censed the font, says the versicle and a prayer. Afterwards they make another station before the rood, and after a (versicle and) prayer there they return to the quire in the accustomed manner.

The processions at lauds and vespers throughout Easter Week (OCO-83.)
On Easter Monday after the first Benedicamus at lauds the procession goes with an acolyte in a surplice carrying the cross, and with candlebearers and thurifer, in the usual manner through the middle of the quire before the rood; when they have made their station there, a verse is said before the cross by two from the superior grade in surplices, facing the clergy: when the versicle and prayer have been said, they return to the quire in the usual manner. (OCO-83.1)
The procession to the rood at lauds is made in this same manner on each day during the week: except that on the two days following the versicle is said in the station before the rood by two from the second form. On the rest of the days following, no versicle is said.
On the same day at vespers the procession goes in the same manner and order as on Easter Day at vespers; except that on this day the boys do not sing at the station at the font. The procession observes the same format at vespers on each of the days of the week up to the Saturday. (OCO-83.2)

The procession to the rood at vespers on Saturday of Easter week (OCO- 84.)
After the first Benedicaumus the procession goes, with candlebearers and a thurifer only, through the middle of the quire, not to the font with oil and chrism as on the preceding days, but to the rood only: and at the station there the verse is said by two from the upper
step, in surplices and turned to face the clergy. Then after the versicle and prayer have been said, the procession returns to the quire in the usual manner.
On this Saturday, and on every Saturday up to Ascension Day the procession is made in the aforementioned manner at vespers; except that on the middle Saturdays the verse is sung at the station by two from the second form; but on the last Saturday the same verse is sung from the superior grade. The procession is made in the same way at vespers on the vigil of the Invention of the Holy Cross, except that on that occasion no verse is sung in station. (OCO_84.2)

The procession at the Great Litany (OCO-85.)
Once mass has been said at the high altar, and sext has been sung, the procession lines up at the quirer step through the middle of the choir. It goes out of the cathedral through the south door of the cathedral, in the same manner and vestment as on Sundays; except that on this occasion banners go in front of the procession, and the reliquaries are carried in this
procession by two from the second form at the discretion of the sacristans, without their changing vestment: and thus the procession goes to one of the churches in the town or suburbs; and after mass has been sung there, they should return in procession to the cathedral, and enter through the same door by which they left, and so return to the quire in the usual manner: and the litany being finished, the prayer should be said with a versicle at the quire step, without a change of vestment.

Procession in Rogationtide and the Vigil of the Ascension (OCO-86.)
On the Monday of Rogationtide the procession is arranged and proceeds in the same way, except that the dragon and then the lion should go in front. Moreover on this day the procession goes through the aformentioned door, and proceeds through the west gate of the city, and going round the city on the north side thus takes itself to one of the churches; and after celebrating mass there, returns to the church through the east gate of the city. And the rest as before. (OCO-86.1)
On Tuesday of Rogationtide, the procession goes through the east gate of the city in the aforesaid manner, with the dragon and the lion and the banners, to the church it is due to go to on that day: and once mass has been celebrated there it goes round the city on the south side and returns to the cathedral through the west gate of the city. The rest as above. (OCO-86.2)
On the vigil of Ascension Day the procession is organised in the same way as on the aforementioned days: the procession goes to the designated place and comes back again. (OCO-87.)

Procession on the Vigil of Pentecost (OCO-88.)
The procession to the font happens in the same manner and order in all respects as on the eve of Easter.

Processions on Saturdays in summer at vespers. (OCO-89.)
On Saturdays when Deus omnium is sung at vespers, after all the memorals except the memorial of the Blessed Mary, a procession is made to the cross in the same manner as on the Saturday of Easter week, except that in this instance no verse is said at the station; this happens on every Saturday up to the beginning of Advent, unless a double feast prevents it.

Processions in honour of a personage (OCO-90.)
Certain processions are made in honour a personage, as for receiving the king, an archbishop, and our own bishop, or a legate: the same manner and vestment is used for these processions as on double feasts. But the processions go through the middle of the quire and the cathedral, and out through the south door of the cathedral, proceeding as far as the appointed place (of meeting), and there two senior persons receive the person who is to be received into the procession for the return; they lead them to the altar step along the same route by which they came; and, while the procession is prostrate in adoration there, the senior priest say a prayer upon the personage. (See OCO-L for the prayers.)

Procession for the reception of a dead person (OCO-91.)
If a dead person is to be received with a procession, the procession is arranged and proceeds in the same way, but in different vestments: the priest and his minister walk in albs; but the choir should be in black copes; and when the procession reaches the appointed place, the priest
sprinkles the body with holy water, then censes it. Afterwards, they return to the Cathedral. If it is a canon whose body is being carried, it is carried into the quire; if not, it is left in the cathedral outside the choir, once a prayer has been said.

Mass on the First sunday in Advent (OCO-92.)
Once the procession (before mass) is completed, while terce is sung the officiant, along with his ministers, dresses himself for the saying of mass. If the bishop is present, he should have three deacons and at least the same number of subdeacons, as also on every feast of nine lessons when the bishop himself is performing the office. On Pentecost and on Maundy Thursday he should have seven deacons, seven subdeacons and three acolytes. On other double feasts he should have only five. On Good Friday, he should have one deacon and one subdeacon. (OCO-92.1)

Once terce is sung and the officium of mass is begun, when Gloria Patri is begun after the offiium, the officiant enters the presbytery with his ministers, in order, and proceeds to the altar. The deacon and subdeacon are dressed in chasubles, without however holding their hands clear of their chasubles after the manner of a priest; the other ministers are dressed in albs. (OCO-92.2.)
The times when the deacons and subdeacons wear chasubles and dalmatics and tunicles and albs are described fully in the ordinal. (OCO-92.3.)
Before the step of the altar the priest says the confession, with the deacon standing beside him on his right, and the subdeacon on his left. (OCO-92.4.)
Whichever priest is officiating (always the bishop, if he is present) says Confiteor at the altar step. Once the absolution has been pronounced, the priest kisswa the deacon, then the subdeacon: and this is alwaysobserved, except when a mass for the faithful departed is to be said and except in the three last days of Passiontide. (OCO-92.5.)
Then the candlebearers set down the candlesticks with candles on the altar step. After making a bow to the altar, the priest censes the altar with the assistance of the deacon: then the priest is censed by the deacon and after that the priest kisses the Text with the assistance of the subdeacon. (OCO-92.6.)
Then at the right-hand side of the altar, the priest continues with the officium of the mass with the deacon and subdeacon up to the prayer, or up to Gloria in excelsis when it is said. After which the priest takes his place along with his ministers in the seats, and waits until the prayer is to be said, or, in the other season, until Gloria in excelsis is begun. (OCO-92.7.)
While the priest stands at the altar to officiate, the deacon stands behind him on the first step before the altar, then the subdeacon in order: in such a way that, as often as the priest turns to face the people, the deacon similarly turns; the subdeacon meanwhile ministers to the priest by adjusting his chasuble. (OCO-92.8.)
Anything said by the priest before the epistle is performed at the right-hand side of the altar; the same is true after the receiving of the sacrament. Everything else happens at the middle of the altar. (OCO-92.9.)
After the introit of the mass, one of the candlebearers solemnly bring bread and wine and water in a pyx and phials to that place, where the bread and wine and water is laid out for the ministration of the Eucharist: the remaining candlebearer brings basins with water and a towel. (OCO-92.10.)
When the last prayer before the epistle has been begun, the subdeacon, having in the meantime taken off his chasuble, goes to the pulpitum through the middle of the quire in order to read the epistle. (OCO-92.11.)
While the epistle is read, two boys in surplices, after bowing to the altar at the quire step, take themselves to sing the gradual in the pulpitum. (OCO-92.12.)
Meanwhile, the two candlebearers should come to join the acolyte at the presbytery door, as he, with great veneration, brings the chalice to the place of the aforementioned ministration, with the offertorium and the corporals placed on top of the chalice itself. And the acolyte is in albs and silken mantle prepared for this purpose. And so once the chalice is set down in the appropriate place, the acolyte himself solemnly places the corporals upon the altar, kissing the altar itself as he steps back. After which the candlebearers set down the candlesticks with their candles at the step of the altar. (OCO-92.13.)
After the epistle is read, the subdeacon, after washing his hands, prepares the bread and wine for the administration of the eucharist, at the place of that administration, with the assistance of an acolyte. (OCO-92.14.)
While the gradual is sung two clerics from the upper step robe themselves in silken copes for singing the Alleluya, and go to the pulpitum. (OCO-92.15.)
Once the gradual has been said, the boy cantors should return, bowing at the altar step. (OCO-92.15.)
After the epistle, one of the candlebearers, along with another boy from the choir, makes ready the eagle in the pulpit, dressing it for the reading of the Gospel. (OCO-92.17.)
While the Alleluya is sung, the deacon, having first washed his hands, and having girdled his left shoulder with the chasuble in the manner of a stole, lays out the corporals on the altar. (OCO-92.18.)
While the prose (sequence) is sung, the deacon censes the altar. Then–and this is a reminder for the boys who are serving to return from the choir to their serving duties–after he has taken up the Text of the Gospels and a blessing has been given to him by the priest (as he makes a bow), he should, with the candlebearers and thurifer going before him, and the subdeacon carrying the book of the Gospel reading, go through the middle of the quire to the pulpitum, carrying the Text itself solemnly on his left hand. (OCO-92.19.)
When he comes to the place for reading, the subdeacon takes the Text and holds it on the left-hand side of the deacon, while he is reading the gospel. (OCO-92.20.)
Once the Gospel has been read, {the subdeacon} proffers the Text to the deacon to be kissed on its right-hand side; but while walking back he carries the Text to the altar directly in front of his chest. (OCO-92.21.)
After the start of Credo in unum the priest himself is censed by the deacon, and afterwards he should kiss the Text, aided by the subdeacon. This done, the choir is censed in the customary manner by a boy, the subdeacon following and holding the Text out of each of them to kiss, in the order in which they are censed. (OCO-92.22.)
Then, with an acolyte ministering to the subdeacon and the subdeacon ministering to the deacon, the priest receives first the host on the paten, then the chalice from the hand of the
deacon, with the deacon then kissing the hand of the priest on each occasion. (OCO-92.23.)
When the sacrifice has been arranged and placed in the customary manner, the priest, with the help of a deacon, censes the sacrifice three times in the sign of the cross, then three times in a cirular motion, and afterwards on each side of the sacrifice. When this has been done the priest washes his hands with the assistance of the subdeacon and of the other servers; the deacon meanwhile at the left-hand side censes the altar and the relics in the usual circular manner. As the priest takes his place to perform the divine rite, the deacon and subdeacon remain on their steps arranged in order. (OCO-92.25.)
If the bishop is celebrating, all the deaconsremain on the deacons’ step, the principal deacon occupying the central place between them. The subdeacons position themselves in a similar manner on the subdeacons’ step; with all the other deacons and subdeacons imitating the
movements of the principal deacon and principal subdeacon; except that the priest’s principal deacon alone ministers to the priest when he is turned to the people. (OCO-92.26.)
While the priest begins Per omnia secula, the subdeacon takes the offertorium and paten from the hand of the deacon, and entrustt the same paten, covered with the offertorium, to the acolyte on the step behind the subdeacon, to hold until the Pater noster is said. (OCO-92.27.)
While the secret of the mass is in progress, the serving boys remain in the choir, taking their place on the end of the first form, until the priest, crossing his hands, bows to the altar: for then they proceed to the altar to assist the deacon in washing his hands, along with the
subdeacon. (OCO-92.28.)
While the priest signs the chalice in the manner of a cross with the body of our Lord, the deacon stands at his right hand, having previously washed his hands, and assists him by holding the corporals. (OCO-92.29.)
When the Lord’s Prayer has started, the deacon receives the paten from the hand of the subdeacon, and after the Lord’s Prayer has been said, offers it to the priest. (OCO-92.30.)
After the third Per omnia, if the bishop is celebrating, the deacon, facing the people, holding the bishop’s staff in his right hand with the curved part of the staff facing towards him, says Humiliate vos ad benedictionem. Then the bishop replaces the Eucharist on the paten for the meantime and give a blessing over the people. (OCO-92.31.)
For the saying of Agnus Dei, the deacon and subdeacon should come up to
the priest, both on his right hand, the deacon nearer him and the subdeacon
further away. (OCO-92.32.)
He then receives the peace from the priest; thenfirst the subdeacon, then, at the quire step, the ruler from the dean’s side, then the other from the precentor’s side. These two carry the peace to the choir, starting with the dean and the precentor, or those who stand nearest to them in the stalls. (OCO-92.33.)
After the sacrament has been received, and the priest comes to wash his hands, the deacon folds the corporals and put them back in their burse. And afterwards he places the corporals on the chalice with the offertorium, and gives the chalice to the acolyte while the postcommunion is said: who, while Per omnia is said after the prayer, carries it back with the same
solemnity with which he brought it there. (OCO-92.24.)
After Benedicamus is said by the deacon, wearing the chasuble once more and turned towards the people, the priest, after he has bowed to the altar, departs with his ministers in the manner in which they entered. (OCO-92.35.)

The mass on other Sundays, with their exceptions. (OCO-93.)
The manner of the service for this Sunday obtains for all the ordinary Sundays throughout the year, except that in Advent, and from Septuagesima up until Easter, the deacon and subdeacon wear chasubles; but at all other times dalmatics and tunicles. In addition, at the aforesaid times, the mass is begun without Gloria in excelsis and concluded without Ite missa est: at other times, however, it is begun with Gloria in excelsis and concluded with Ite missa est. (OCO-93.1.)
On no Sunday during the year is a prose (sequence) said at mass, when it is a Sunday service, except in Advent; and on the Sunday when Dum medium silencium is sung out of reverence for the season of Christmas. In addition, on every Sunday throughout the year an Alleluya is said at mass, except in Septuagesima up until Easter. For then the tract is sung, without an Alleluya and without a prose, by four clerks from the superior grade step in silken copes at the quire
step; in such a way that they all start the first verse at the same time, which the two from the choir sside continue; the other two meanwhile seat themselves at the far end of the first form; and thus each of the verses of the whole tract is sung in alternating turns by those four,
while the the choir in the meantime is seated: in such a way that they should all finish the tract together. On the first Sunday of Quadragesima, however, and on Palm Sunday, the tract is sung in the choir, alternating from side to side, in the manner aforesaid. (OCO-93.2.)

Mass on the first Monday in Advent (OCO-94.)
The same manner and order of service is observed on the first Monday in Advent as on the preceding Advent Sunday, but with some exceptions: on this day the priest comes in with his ministers to officiate at the beginning of the officium. The epistle is read at the quire step. (OCO-94.1.)
The gradual is sung at the quire step by one boy alone wearing a surplice.; the Alleluya by another boy in the same place and dress. (OCO-94.2.)
The Gospel is read not in the pulpitum on the eagle but in the presbytery at the pulpit prepared for the purpose, with the deacon turned to face the north: which one of the candlebearers should arrange and dress in the appropriate place after the reading of the lesson. While the Gospel is read, the subdeacon holds the Text before the reader, with the candlebearers assisting the deacon, one on the right and the other on the left: and a boy thurifer should stand by the aforesaid step behind the deacon on the other side of the presbytery and turned to face him. After the Gospel reading, the priest kisses the Text, with the assistance of the deacon, but at this point he is not censed, nor is the choir censed, for at no time is the choir censed after the Gospel at mass, except when Credo in unum is said, but then always. The peace is brought to the choir by the deacon, through the two on the furthermost end of the second form. The rest as before. (OCO-94.3.)
On this day the mass for the faithful departed is said before terce in chapter, with the deacon and subdeacon dressed in albs only: which is observed at every mass for the dead, except when it is celebrated for deceased bishops of the diocese of Salisbury, and on the day following All
Saints, for then dalmatics and tunicles are worn. (OCO-94.4.)

The weekday mass on other weekdays throughout the year (OCO-95.)
A similar manner of service is also observed on every weekday throughout the year, except that from Septuagesima until Easter the Alleluya is not said at mass, but throughout Quadragesima on Mondays and Wednesdays and Fridays, up until Easter, a tract is always said in the quire in the aforesaid manner. On every weekday throughout the year, except during Advent and Septuagesima, the deacon and subdeacon wear dalmatics and tunicles, except on vigils of feasts and Ember Days: for then they are in albs. (OCO-95.1.)
On the vigil of Christmas, while the prayer before the epistle is said, an acolyte comes to the quire step and there reads the lesson before the epistle. When the reading is finished, the epistle is to be read from the same place without any intervening chant. (OCO-95.2.)
On every Wednesday of the Ember Days an acolyte in the same way reads the lesson before the epistle, but the prayer precedes it without Dominus vobiscum, and after the intervening chant the epistle follows.
In the same way on the Saturday of the Ember Days an acolyte reads the first lesson: then the following lessons run within the second form at the discretion of the master of the schools, in surplices, with the provision that the last is read by a priest: and the chants after each lesson are sung in surplices by a different boy, at the discretion of the precentor. (OCO-95.3.)
However, after the final lesson is sung, two from the second form, in surplices, sing at the quire step in the same way as the boys. After the epistle two clerks from the second form in black copes likewise sing the tract at the quire step. Mass is sung after none through the whole of Quadragesima. Chapter mass for the dead is not said on any weekday during Eastertide unless it is an anniversary or trental. (OCO-95.4.)

The first mass on Christmas Day (OCO-96.)
After Te Deum laudamus the senior priest sings the first mass, and his ministry is carried out as on a Sunday; except that the deacon and subdeacon and acolyte wear dalmatics and tunicles. When Gloria in excelsis is said at mass, the lesson before the epistle is sung in the
pulpit by any two, at the discretion of the precentor, in silken copes, and the epistle
is read without any intervening chant. The gradual is sung in the pulpitum by three from the second form in silken copes: the Alleluya is said by three of the senior figures at the same place, in silken copes. If the bishop is performing the office, all the ministerscome out into the quire to sing the prose, except for the principal deacon and the principal subdeacon, and the deacons and subdeacons remain there in the middle of the quire with the rulers of the choir until the principal deacon returns from the pulpitum through the quire after the Gospel has been read. The cross goes forward in the procession to read the Gospel, and will be on the right of the reader of the Gospel, the crucifix facing towards him. Once the Gospel has been read, the other deacons and subdeacons accompany the principal deacon from the quire up to the altar in procession, in such a way that the subdeacons go in front, two by two, then the principal subdeacon at the back of the procession of subdeacons, with one subdeacon walking on his right, and another on the left: thereafter the deacons follow, arranged in a similar order; and in this same manner and order they precede the bishop as they go into mass. Moreover for censing the choir after Credo in unum two thurifers come forward, along with two subdeacons with two Texts. But if the bishop is not celebrating, an acolyte from the precentor’s side brings one of the Texts; but first the precentor is censed, then the principal rulers of the choir on either side of him, then the two secondary rulers; next the choir, in the usual manner; the Text comes after, in the same order. For giving the kiss of peace, first the deacon kisses the principal subdeacon, from whom the other deacons and subdeacons receive the kiss of peace; then they kiss the two secondary rulers, who take the peace first to the precentor, and to the two principal rulers, each on his own side; after which the principal rulers carry the peace to the dean’s and the precentor’s side, with the secondary rulers carrying it to the chancellor’s and treasurer’s end.

The second mass on Christmas Day (OCO-97.)
The priest whom the bishop has chosen for the second mass celebrates it in the same way as on the first Sunday in Advent, except that one from the second form reads the lesson before the epistle in a surplice, after which the epistle follows without interruption. The deacon receives a
blessing from the bishop before proclaiming the Gospel and after the Gospel has been read, when he is going past the bishop, he will first cense him and afterwards the subdeacon will proffer the Text, opened, to him for kissing; andas soon as the subdeacon has been kissed, the deacon should proffer the peace to the bishop. The rest as before.

The third mass on Christmas Day (OCO-98.)
The bishop shall celebrate the third mass, or in his absence another senior priest, in a similar way to the first except for the procession: in which all the deacons and subdeacons who are to minister at mass walk in procession.

Other Double Feasts when the choir is ruled (OCO-99.)
A similar manner of service is to be observed on all double feasts, consecutive and also non-consecutive, except that then it is not always the highest-ranking priest who performs the office, but it will follow a descending order of seniority, as at Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. A similar manner of service should also be observed on every feast, and on all octaves, and weekdays within the octaves, in which the choir is ruled; except that on the aforesaid feasts the Alleluya is sung in the pulpit by the rulers of the choir, without change of vestments. If any feast of nine lessons falls on any weekday in Quadragesima, the mass of the feast is said before terce in dalmatics and tunicles; and after none the mass of the fast is said; and both are said at the main altar.

Mass on Feasts of Three Lessons (OCO-100.)
The same manner is observed on feasts of three lessons as on weekdays, except for the prostrations; and except on feasts where the invitatory is sung by two; for on such feasts the gradual is sung by two boys wearing surplices at the quire step; and the Alleluya by two from the second form in the same place and vestments. And this manner of service is observed in the commemorations of the Blessed Mary throughout the year. But on feasts of three lessons where Alleluya. Laudate pueri is said, the same Alleluya is sung by two boys in surplices at the quire step.

Veiling of images (OCO-101.)
On the Monday of the first week in Quadragesima at matins all crosses and images and relics and also the vessel containing the eucharist should be covered until matins on Easter Day. (OCO-101.1.)
From the preceding Saturday until the Wednesday before Easter a veil is to hang in the presbytery between the quire and the altar: which should be let down on weekdays through the whole of Quadragesima, when there is a ferial service, except while the Gospel is read; for then it is raised in the meantime and hangs on high until Orate fratres is said by the priest. (OCO-101.2.)
If a feast of nine lessons follows the next day, then for the rest of that day it will not be let down, nor will it be let down until before the next weekday matins. However if on that feast day there is a mass for the fast, the veil is let down until the beginning of the Gospel and for no longer. (OCO-101.3.)
On the Wednesday before Easter while the Lord’s passion is read, at the utterance of the phrase Velum templi scissum est the aforesaid veil should fall to the floor of the presbytery. On this day, too, at vespers and up until mass on the next day the bells should be rung as on Sundays. The choir is not ruled; the lights are lit as on Palm Sunday. The antiphons with the psalms should run along the second form; also the responsory should be sung by one cleric alone in the second form; no preces are said at vespers nor any memorial. After vespers the collect is said at the quire step without change of vestment; and vespers of St Mary are not to be said in the community, nor from here onwards until the day after the octave of Easter. Compline is said solemnly in the usual way without prostration and without the penitential psalm, with the
verses of the antiphon after Nunc dimittis sung in the second form.

Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday (OCO-102.)
Before matins twenty-four candles are lit, one of which is extinguished at the beginning of each antiphon and responsory. The same is done on Good Friday and on Holy Saturday. The antiphons on the psalms should run in order along the superior grade, having been begun by
one of the senior figures from the choir side; this order is followed through the next two days. Gloria patri is omitted entirely. The first antiphon at lauds is begun by the first clerk from the second form on the choir side; the second by his counterpart opposite; then the
others run in order on the same form; and this order should be continued through the following nights. No chapter is said at these matins, nor any hymn. While the last psalm at lauds is sung, the light is hidden away where it cannot be seen. When the fifth antiphon at lauds is finished, all the lights throughout the church are extinguished. The antiphon on Benedictus is begun by a senior.

The preparation of Chrism on Maundy Thursday (OCO-103.)
At the officium of the mass, the bishop proceeds, with the festive procession arranged in order, to the altar, as on other double feasts: two of the senior persons in silken copes assist in conducting him to the altar, and for the confession they are placed one on his right and the other on his left, as no places need be reserved for the principal deacon and principal
subdeacon, and they should retire when the absolution has been made. Then the
service is performed in the usual manner up to Te igitur. While the bishop is saying Te igitur three ministers should be lined up in the cathedral, vested only in amices and albs, carrying three banners, and another three ministers – they should be deacons – similarly vested, their shoulders girt with three linen cloths, to carry three ampullae full of the purest oil, one of oil for
the sick, another of holy oil and the third of chrism for consecration; each of the ampullae should have a title written upon it to distinguish it: on the first, ‘Oil for the sick’, on the second, ‘Holy oil’, on the third, ‘Chrism’. And another, wearing an alb, makse himself ready to carry the silken tabernacle. Also three archdeacons in silken copes, namely the Archdeacon of
Berkshire, and one of the two of Wiltshire and third the Archdeacon of Dorset, each filling up their ampullae with the oil they had prepared for this. And once Te igitur has been sung through as far as sed venie quesumus largitor admitte, before per quem hec omnia, domine semper bona creas is said, the Archdeacon of Berkshire approaches the altar through the middle of the quire, with a minister going in front carrying the oil for the sick, and also another minister going before with a banner. Then the bishop makes the sign of the cross three times over the ampulla, and breathe on it three times, the minister assisting him by holding the oil. Then the bishop performs the exorcism, with only those ministers who are standing by the altar being able to hear, without Dominus vobiscum, and without Oremus, as in every exorcism. Then follows the prayer, without Dominus vobiscum, and without Oremus. Once this has been performed, the archdeacon and his ministers withdraw in the same manner in which they came. Then mass is said, up tothe blessing on the people. Then the Archdeacon of Wiltshire approaches in the same manner and order in which the other archdeacon approached, with the ampulla containing the holy oil, over which the bishop makes the sign of the cross three times, and he breathes on it three times, and thus perform the exorcism of the oil for baptism in the
aforementioned way; afterwards the bishop should say the prayer over the oil with Dominus vobiscum and Oremus. After this, the bishop having returned to his seat, the ministers should be made ready, in six ranks, to bring the chrism. In the first rank the banners lead the way. In the second, two candlebearers vested in albs. In the third, two thurifers, similarly vested. In the fourth, two subdeacons coming alongside the bishop, without change of vestments, bring two gospel-books. In the fifth, the deacon carries the ampulla with the oil for the consecration of the chrism, over which the tabernacle is carried; three boys also precede him in surplices, singing the hymn O redemptor and the other verses which follow; with the choir each time repeating the first verse. In the sixth rank, two crosses are carried by the two acolytes ministering at the altar, without change of vestments, under the tabernacle, one
to the right-hand side of the ampulla-bearer, the other on the left, going after the ampulla itself; then the archdeacons with the Archdeacon of Dorset placed in the middle; and thus they approach the altar in procession. Once the hymn has been said, the bishop returns to the altar, and heis given the ampulla of oil which bears the inscription ‘Chrism’. Then balsam is mixed with it by the bishop, the bishop making the sign of the cross over it three times, and breathing on it three times, facing east; and so he blesses the chrism at the right-hand side of the altar, saying Veni creator in a loud voice, with a genuflection; and the whole hymn is sung in this way, that the first verse is sung by the clerks serving near the altar, the second by the whole choir, and thus the hymn is sung in alternation. When it is finished, the benediction follows, namely Hec mixtio liquorum &c., then the prayer with Dominus vobiscum and the rest of the prayers following. After which, the bishop says in a loud voice, Per omnia secula seculorum. Dominus vobiscum. Sursum corda. Gracias agamus with the preface following. After the aforesaid blessings, the minister carrying the ampulla of chrism covers the ampulla of chrism with the linen cloth with which he was girded, and standing on the right-hand side of the altar, reverently holds it until the Agnus Dei is sung. Afterwards, the bishop says in a loud voice Per omnia secula; then the deacon who read the gospel says Humiliate vos ad benedictionem. Then follows the blessing on the people. After the blessing, the bishop say Et pax ejus. Then the precentor begins Agnus Dei, and the vessel of chrism is carried by the aforementioned minister to the bishop to be kissed; afterwards, in place of the peace, it is carried to the choir in the same order as the choir is customarily censed in; and thus the precentor begins the communion and the service is thus completed in the normal way.

Vigils of the Dead (OCO-104.)
At vigils of the dead of three lessons outside of Eastertide, the antiphon on the psalms at Placebo is begun on the superior grade; likewise the antiphon on Magnificat; the versicle on Magnificat likewise. The psalms after Magnificat and Benedictus should also begun on the same step. The prayers are said by the priest, changing neither position nor vestment, but turned
to the altar or prostrate.
At Dirige, the antiphon on the psalms, and at lauds, and before Benedictus should be intoned on the superior grade: likewise the versicles; and the lessonsare read in the second form, and the responsories sung by the same readers, changing neither vestments nor position. The clerics should be prostrate while the Lord’s Prayer is said before the lessons. After
Benedictus the same manner and order is also observed as after Magnificat at Placebo.
No prostrations are made at vigils of the dead during Eastertide, nor on any feast of three or nine lessons, nor on commemorations of the Blessed Virgin Mary, nor on or within octaves of saints’ days.
And at ordinary vigils of nine lessons, the first antiphon at Placebo is intoned in the superior grade; all the rest of the antiphons should run along the first form, except the antiphon upon Magnificat, and the first antiphon on the psalms at Dirige, and the first antiphonpon the psalms at lauds, and the antiphon on Benedictus, which should run along the upper step. The first three lessons are read in the first form, changing neither vestment nor position; their responsories are sung by the same readers. The three middle lessons, along with their responsories, are said in the second form in the same way. The three final lessons with their responsories are said in the superior grade in the same manner, but with this proviso, that the second verse of the final responsory is said on the same step on the other side; the third similarly should be said on the same step on the choir side: everything else is to be carried
out as is noted above.
This manner of service of the dead holds good for every anniversary and trental, after the first day of the trental. Nevertheless, on anniversaries of ordinary canons, the final responsory is said by two from the superior grade at the quire step, without changing vestments, with its three verses. Also on the first day of the trental for an ordinary canon, the responsory is said in the same way, but after the final verse of the responsory, it is repeated by the cantors at the quire step, and sung through by the choir: in addition, the sixth lesson and its responsory are said in the superior grade. On the anniversaries of an archdeacon, or a subdean or a succentor, the same manner of service should happen as on the first day of the trental of an ordinary canon. On the anniversaries of a precentor, chancellor and a treasurer, the antiphons which at ordinary vigils are customarily in the first form shall run along the second form. The rest is as on the first day of the trental of ordinary canons. On the anniversaries of a dean, a similar service is observed as for the other persons, except that the third lesson is in the second form, and the fifth lesson with its responsory is said in the superior grade.
As regards principal persons of the cathedral promoted to the episcopacy in other dioceses, the service should be made on their anniversaries according to the rank which they held in Salisbury Cathedral before their promotion. For other bishops entirely from outside the diocese, and for kings for whom a service is held, it should be done in the same way as on anniversaries of ordinary canons. It is understood that there is a service on the anniversaries only of those who are entered in the Martyrology.
On anniversaries of the four principal persons the senior priest officiates; but the bishop officiates on the anniversaries of his predecessors.
On anniversaries of bishops of the diocese of Salisbury the whole service runs as on the double feast of St John the Baptist; however, on this occasion vestments are not changed for reading or singing. For the table of lessons to be read and responsories to be sung is arranged as on the aforementioned double feast; except that on this occasion no responsory is sung by three except the ninth. The officiant does not change position in saying the prayers.
When there is a service where the body is present, but it is not a canon, all the antiphons apart from the five principal ones run in the second form; the first two lessons with their responsories in the first form; the third and fourth in the second form; the fifth and upwards in the superior grade. All the responsories are sung by two at the head of the body, turned to face east; but the last by three, and the same should be sung with a repetition, in such a way that it is started by the same singers. Each of the versicles is sung in the same place by two boys; the rest is as for those vigils as already described. And if the body is that of a canon, the service is carried out in the same manner as it is on anniversaries of bishops of the church of Salisbury.