Psalm-Tones at the Officium (Introit).
Each Officium includes a Psalm-Verse (or other text) set to a melodic formula in one of the eight modes. The Gloria Patri is set to the same melodic formula. (Gloria Patri is omitted during Passiontide and in Requiem masses.) The Psalm-Tones at the Officium are related to the Psalm-Tones of the Office, but are not the same. Knowledge of the Officium Tones is not necessary for performance, since the Officium Psalm-verses are always written out in full. But an understanding of the structure will assist in discerning the differences between the Sarum Use and other practices. (This understanding is also necessary for adapting the Sarum chant to English texts.) The file Gloria Patri at the Officium provides a summary of these Tones.
Structure of the Sarum Psalm-Tones at the Officium.
The melodic formula consists in the opening phrase of first intonation, reciting tone, mediation; in the closing phrase, of second intonation, reciting tone, and ending. In case of the Gloria Patri–and in the Officium for Ascension Day–there is an intermediary third phrase consisting of the second intonation, reciting tone, and mediation. (In Tone VI this intermediary phrase has a unique, third intonation.) The file Sarum Tones for the Officium illustrates these Tones.
The first intonation always take the first available syllables regardless of accent. The second intonation also takes the first available syllables, except in the case of Tone V.
In the Sarum Use the mediations of Tones I. III. and VII. are of two accents. The mediations of Tones II. IV. V. VI. and VIII. are normally of one accent. Exceptions to this principle and variants amongst sources are noted in the edition. (In contrast, the Solemn mediations of Psalm-Tones II. IV. VI. and VIII. in the Sarum Breviary are of two accents.) A survey of sources makes clear that the mediations of tones II, IV and VIII are by and large treated as having one accent with three preparatory neumes. However, in a minority of cases–1 in Graduale Sarisburiense, 1 in Graduale 1508, 3 in Rylands-24, and 2 in Arsenal–but different examples in each case, they are treated as having two accents. Only in one case, Prope esto for Friday in the Ember Days of Advent, do two sources (Rylands and Arsenal) give a setting of two accents, while two other sources (GS and Sarum Tonary) give a setting of one accent. In comparison it should be observed that the Graduale Romanum 1908 consistently gives a setting of one accent, while the Dominica Gradual (1950) gives more settings of two accents than of one accent. The Sarum Tonary indicates mediations of one accent for the Gloria Patri in tones II, IV, and VIII. These findings seem to be equally similar for tones II, IV, and VIII. In conclusion, for the sake of consistency, the edition uses mediations of one accent for tones II, IV, and VIII.
The endings of Tones I, II, VI, and VII. are cursive; that is they are not modified on account of text accent. The endings of Tones III and IV and VIII. are of one accent. The ending of Tone V is of two accents.
(In the Graduale Romanum 1908 and in the Liber Usualis the mediation of Tone VI. is normally of two accents–the Seventh Sunday after Pentecost is an exception; all the endings are cursive, except Tone V. which is of two accents, and Tone VIII. which is of one accent. The differences of detail throughout the Tones, compared to the Sarum forms, are noted below.)
(In the Dominican Graduale 1950 all the mediations of the Gloria Patri except Tone V. are of two accents; nevertheless the Psalm-verses are not necessarily of two accents: see for example Friday in the Ember Days of Advent, page 10, and the second Mass of Christmas, page 29. The Dominican Graduale provides only one ending for each Tone. The differences of detail throughout the Tones, compared to the Sarum forms, are noted below.)
In the Requiem Mass the Officium, unusually, uses the Psalm-Tone of the Officum.
In a few cases there is insufficient text to accommodate both intonation and mediation in the Psalm-Tone at the Officium. In such cases the intonation is retained whilst the mediation is curtailed or omitted. Likewise the second intonation may be omitted. See for example Saturday in the third week of Lent.
Officium Tone I
Mediation of 2 accents; cursive ending of 5 syllables; 4 endings. In the ending the pattern of a single F followed by a neume beginning on F can a accommodate a either a penultimate accent or an ante-penultimate accent (compare Tone VII). (In some instances some Sarum sources set the ending as 2 accents.)
The Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis do not include the fourth ending. The penultimate neume of endings 1 and 3 is FFF. In the Dominican Graduale the penultimate neume is FE.
Officium Tone II
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables (exceptionally 2 accents with 1 preparatory syllable); cursive ending of 5 syllables; 1 ending.
In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the first intonation is C.DC.CF. In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; the second intonation is F.DF.
Officium Tone III
Mediation of 2 accents; ending of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; 2 endings. (In some instances some Sarum sources set the ending as 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables.) A liquescent (Ba) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending.
In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the final neume of the mediation is CCC; only the first ending is included. The Dominican Graduale includes only the first ending.
Officium Tone IV
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables (exceptionally 2 accents with 1 preparatory syllable); cursive ending of 5 syllables (exceptionally 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables); 2 endings. A liquescent (Gf) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending.
In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the second ending concludes EGFF. In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; only the first ending appears.
Officium Tone V
Mediation of 1 accent with no preparatory syllables (an exceptional abrupt mediation appears on the emphatic monosyllable ‘fac’ in the Officium for the ninth Sunday after Trinity); continuation A.C. (exceptional continuation C.C.C); ending of two accents; 3 endings. The ending is notable in that it introduces a new note, C after the first accent when an additional unaccented syllable appears. This pattern appears in the Dominican Gradual (1950), but not in the Roman Gradual (1908).
In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the mediation is of one accent with one preparatory syllable, D.D; only the first two endings appear. The Dominican Graduale gives only the third ending.
Officium Tone VI
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; continuation on A to a strong syllable AC followed by G and then the reciting note on F (exceptional continuations are to be found); cursive ending, one ending. A liquescent (Gf) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending. In the Gloria Patri the intermediary phrase has a unique intonation, F.GA.A. Tone VI. also sometimes includes an inflection, FG. in the recitation tone of the final phrase.
In the Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the mediation, A.B-flat.A.G.F, is of two accents; the second intonation of the Gloria Patri is F.GA.A; the final intonation is F.GA.AC.G.F; a second ending appears, in which the final neume is FGAG. In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; the final intonation is F.A.AC.G.F.
Officium Tone VII
Mediation of 2 accents; ending of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; 3 endings. In the ending the pattern of a single C followed by a neume beginning on C can accommodate either a penultimate accent or an ante-penultimate accent (compare Tone I).
The Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis has only the third ending, as follows: DEF.D.C.CCC.AG. In the Dominican Graduale, which has only the third ending, the second last syllable is CB.
Officium Tone VIII
Mediation of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables (exceptionally 2 accents with 1 preparatory syllable); ending of 1 accent with 3 preparatory syllables; 2 endings. A liquescent Ag) frequently appears on the penultimate neume of the ending.
In Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis the first intonation appears as G.AG.GC. In the Dominican Graduale the mediation has two accents; the second intonation is C.AC.
Tone for the Preface
In general terms the Tone for the Preface resembles the Lesson Tones, with reciting tone, mediation and ending. The sources present considerable diversity in their details. Such diversity seems typical of such solo repertoire.
There is no intonation, seeing that the Preface continues directly from the preceding versicles, using the reciting note C. (In the Solemnes editions ‘Vere dignum’ begins with one A before the reciting tone continues.)
Normally the reciting tone is on C, however following the mediation the reciting note may return to C or continue with B. (In the Solesmes editions the concluding reciting tone is always B.)
The mediation is of two accents with no preparatory syllables. The first accent is on C (the reciting tone) with subsequent weak syllables on B; the second accent is on AB with subsequent weak syllables on B.
Two or more mediations may follow in succession.
The continuation of the reciting note on C is typically begun by a flex of one or two syllables, depending on the accentual pattern.
The continuation of the reciting note on B omits any flex, but often contains a single C on an accented syllable before the ending.
The simple ending consists of one accent with four preparatory syllables, C AG GA C; the accent is sung AB, with one or two weak syllables following on A.
When the reciting tone preparatory to the ending is C, an inflection to B may occur on the preceding one, two or three unaccented syllables.
When there are only three or four syllables preparatory to the ending they are sung on B, except the accent, which is on C; thus ‘per Christum’ is B C.B, and ‘qui abstulit’ is B. C.B.B.
In the context of the above guiding patterns, variations are to be found, particularly in the passages preceding the ending. The factors that determine the choice of the reciting tone on B or C for concluding phrases are not entirely clear at this point.
In the Arsenal Missal the note preceding the final accent of the mediation is BA (as in the Solesmes editions).
In Rylands-24 the mediation has a single preparatory note, B, before the first accent. (Note, however, that the music is a tone lower, so this preparatory note appears as A.)
The Sanctus can normally be tonally connected with the Preface such that the final note A of the preface will be sol (G) of the Sanctus in Mode VI, la (A) of the Sanctus in Modes I, V and VIII, or re (D) of the Sanctus in Mode II.
Appendix: Additions, variants, miscellanea
December 25: Nativity
Sequence. Celica resonet clare
Friday in Easter Week
Sequence. Jubilans concrepa nunc paraphronista
This seqence continues well from the Alleluya without transpostion.
Sequence. Quicunque vult salvus esse (Rylands-24)
Sequence. Quicunque vult salvus esse (Arsenal)
Sequence. Deus meus adoremus (Petre’s Gradual)
Sequence. Trinitatis in laude (Petre’s Gradual)
Alleluya in the final weekdays before Advent. Alleluya. V. Benedicam Dominum. (Ps. 33:2). This chant appears in only one source in CANTUS, two sources in SEEM and one source in MMMO.
Octave of the Dedication
Sequence. Quam dilecta tabernacula (longer form)
November 30. St. Andrew
Sequence. Sacro sancta hodierne festivitas
December 8. Conception of the blessed Virgin
Sequence. Dies iste celebretur
musical setting, WR
March 25. Annunciation
Sequence. Ave mundi spes Maria (Arsenal version)
June 24. St. John the Baptist
Sequence. Sancti baptiste Christi
August 5. St. Dominic
Alleluya. V. Pie pater Dominice
This alleluya has two sources in CANTUS
Sequence. In celesti hierarchia
August 6. Transfiguration
Sequence. Benedicta semper sit beata Trinitas
November 3. St. Wenefrede
Sequence. Virgo vernans velut rosa
The melody is borrowed from Verbum bonum.
Common of Saints
Sequence. Mulier laudabilis
The Five Wounds
Officium. Humiliavit semetipsum
Gradual. Improperium expectavit
Alleluya. V. Ave Rex noster
Tract. Judica me Deus
musical setting WR
Sequence. Cenam cum discipulis
Offertory. Insurrexerunt in me
Communion. Foderunt manus meas
The Crown of Thorns
Alleluya. V. Tuam coronam adoramus
Alleluya. V. Diadema spineam
Sequence. Si vis vere gloriari
musical setting by WR
Daily (votive) mass of St. Mary in Advent
Sequence. Missus Gabriel de celis
Daily (votive) mass of St. Mary after the Nativity
Sequence. Salve sancta Parens
musical setting adapted by WR
Orationes (or masses)
For sinners or penitents
Prayer. Deus qui justificas impium
Secret. Hujus quesumus Domine virtute misterii
Postcommunion. Purificent nos quesumus Domine sacramenta
Mass of St. Sigismund against fever
To beseech the gift of holy charity
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui justiciam
Secret. Emitte Domine quesumus spiritum charitatis
Postcommunion. Spiritus in nobis Domine tue caritatis infunde
Prose for the dead
Sequence. Dies irae
Commemoration of St. Thomas Becket
Sequence. Letabundus sit jocundus voce sonans
Sequence. Spe mercedis et corone
Commemoration of St. Osmund
Sequence. Dulce carnem et jocundum
Kyrie. Rex virginum amator (I.)
This chant is a contrafacta of Kyrie Cunctipotens Genitor.
A two-part version appears in Codex Las Huelgas, Spain, ca. 1300.
Kyrie. Summe Deus Pater (VIII.)
This chant is a contrafacta of Kyrie Rex splendens.
Kyrie virginitatis amator (III.)
This chant is a contrafacta of Kyrie fons bonitatis.
It will be noted that in many places the text is the same as that of Kyrie fons bonitatis.
Kyrie Rex virginum (VII.)
Lux et gloria regis summi (VIII.)
This chant is a contrafacta of Lux et origo.
It will be noted that in many places the text is the same as that of Lux et origo.
Kyrie machine Conditor (VIII.)
Marie laus et amor (I.)
Pater pie factor (VIII.)
O Rex clemens Rex omnipotens (VIII.)
This chant is a contrafacta of ‘Pater pie factor’.
Kyrie Rex seclorum (I.)
Kyrie. Deus Creator (absque versus) (VIII.)
Kyrie fons bonitatis (absque versus) (VIII.)
Kyrie Rex Genitor (absque versus) (VII.)
Kyrie O Rex clemens/Pater pie (absque versus) (VIII.)
This is an alternate version constructed from Arsenal:232r.
Kyrieleyson (F.G.AFBbAAGFE) (VI.)
Gloria in excelsis
Gloria in excelsis (GA.GF.G A) (VIII.)
An alternate version of Gloria in excelsis #1.
Gloria in excelsis (GAG.FG. G) (VII.)
An alternate version of Gloria in excelsis #9.
Gloria in excelsis. Regnum tuum solidum (IV.)
A troped version of Gloria in excelsis #4.
Gloria in excelsis. Regnum tuum solidum (IV.)
Another version of the above.
Gloria in excelsis (DFA.GF.ED) (I.)
This series of troped Sanctus settings appears in Arsenal:283v-287r.
Sanctus. Voce dulcisona (CEDG) (I.)
Sanctus. Quem pium benedicit turma (CEDG) (I.)
Sanctus. Laudes Deo (CD.D) (II.)
Sanctus. Clangat hodie vox nostra (CDEDCDB.C) (V.)
This is the only troped Sanctus for which the un-troped Sanctus is not to be found in the Sarum repertoire. A reconstruction of the un-troped Sanctus appears below.
Sanctus. Sanctorum exultacio (BCAA.F) (V.)
Sanctus. Christo Regi regum (BCAA.F) (V.)
Sanctus. Voce vita sit unita (BCAA.F) (V.)
Sanctus. Sancte ingenite Genitor (GCAGEFGA.G) (VIII.)
Sanctus. Laude canora fulgescit (BCAA.F) (V.)
The transposition from F to C implies F-sharp in several locations! However there is no apparent necessity for this transposition to be employed.
Sanctus. Maria Mater egregia (CEDGGFEF.D) (I.)
Sanctus. Gaude Virgo Mater Dei (CEDGGFEF.D) (I.)
Sanctus. Splendor Patris (GCAGEFGA.G) (VIII.)
Sanctus. Maria concrepet vocum (CEDGGFEF.D) (I.)
Sanctus. Salve Mater Salvatoris (CEDGGFEF.D) (I.)
Sanctus. (CAGC.C) (VI.)
Sanctus. (GDDCBCD.D) (VII.)
Sanctus. (A.GF) (V.)
Sanctus. Consolator peccatoris (GCAGEFGA.G) (VIII.)
Sanctus. (CDEDCDB.C) (V.)
This un-troped Sanctus has been reconstructed from Sanctus. Clangat hodie vox nostra above.
This series of troped Agnus Dei settings appears in Arsenal:287r-288v.
Agnus Dei. Fons indeficiens (GAg.AB) (VII.)
Agnus Dei. Lux lucis (AC.DF) (II.)
Agnus Dei. Deus deorum (D.F DCE.E) (I.)
Agnus Dei. Mortis dira (F.AC) (V.)
This is the only troped Agnus Dei melody for which the un-troped Agnus Dei is not to be found in the Sarum repertoire. The same Agnus Dei melody is used for five other tropes found below. A reconstruction of the un-troped Agnus Dei appears below.
Agnus Dei. Qui Deus es (GA.G FE.DFG)) (VIII.)
Agnus Dei. Omnipotens Pater (GAGG.FG) (VIII.)
Agnus Dei. Qui pius et mitis (GAg.AB) (VII.)
Agnus Dei. Rex eterne glorie (D.F DCE.E) (I.)
Agnus Dei. Laus matris (AC.DF) (II.)
This setting and those that follow pay particular hommage to the blessed Virgin. Perhaps they were frequently sung in chapels where the office and mass of the Virgin were sung on a daily basis, such as the Salve chapel in Salisbury Cathedral.
Agnus Dei. Splendor Christe (GAg.AB) (VIII.)
Agnus Dei. Gloriosa spes (F.AC) (V.)
Agnus Dei. Qui de carne (F.AC) (V.)
Agnus Dei. Eructavit cor meum (F.AC) (V.)
Agnus Dei. Flos de flore (F.AC) (V.)
Agnud Dei. Factus homo (F.AC) (V.)
Agnus Dei . . . dona eis requiem (A.GF GA.A) (IV.)
Agnus Dei. (F.AC) (V.)
This un-troped Agnus Dei has been reconstructed from Agnus Dei. Mortis dira above. The same Agnus Dei melody is used for five other tropes above.
Versicle at the end of double feasts (Cam-Queens-MS-28:527.)
This brief dialogue may possibly be connected with a final (pontifical) blessing, although no rubrics concerning appear it the sarum missals. These same versicles also appear (of course with not music) in the prayers at the steps of the altar at the beginning of mass.
Passio Domini nostri secundum Johannem papam.
This is a short passion compiled from all four Gospel passions.