Companion to the Processional

An important study of the processional appears as Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum and the Western Church (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of M
British Library Cotton MS Tiberius C 1 ff 43r-203v contains a pontifical including an added portion (ff 89r (88r?)-151r) from the 11th century written at Sherbourne and Salisbury.edieval Studies. 1971).  This study lists the most important manuscript sources (pages 3-8).

Station blessing holy water on Sundays

Woodcuts in the processionals illustrate the order of processions.  They normally supplement the text-descriptions.

The procession is lined up facing the high altar to the east.  At the foot of the Sanctuary steps is the crucifer flanked by taperers and followed by a thurifer.  To the right is the virger.  In some editions the virger is  indicated on the left rather than the right–this more accurately represents the direction that the procession will take.  Then comes the sub-deacon and deacon flanked by the boy bearing the salt and the water.  Again, in some editions these latter two are indicated on the left rather than the right.  Finally there follows the boy bearing the text, and the priest in a silken cope.  The horizontal line towards the bottom of the woodcut represents the quire step.

1
Blessing of Salt and Water

Prayer. Exorciso te creatura salis

2
Prayer. Immensam clementiam tuam

Prayer. Exorciso te creatura aque

3
Prayer. Deus qui ad salutem humani generis

Prayer. Deus invicte virtutis auctor

4
‘. . . laicos in presbyterio . . .’ is evidence that certain lay folk were admitted to the prebytery at certain times.  Presumably they would stand near to the north and south entrances of the chancel.

Ant. Asperges me Domine ysopo

6
Ant. Vide aquam egredientem

7
V. Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam

Prayer. Exaudi nos Domine sancte Pater omnipotens

8
In primis procedat ministri virga . . .’  note that the order of procession is not the same as the order of assembly above.  Further, the boys and clerks of the second form follow, and then the clerks of the superior grade, and finally the four seniors (when present), Treasurer, Chancellor, Cantor, and Dean), and the bishop, when present.

The processional route is out the north door of the chancel, and then circling the presbytery in a clockwise fashion.  The procession continues west along the south aisle of the nave to the font, and then continues east along the centre aisle of the nave to the rood.

Omnes autem clerici . . . diei precedentis interfuerint.

9
First Sunday of Advent
Ant. Missus est angelus Gabriel

10
Bidding Prayers
[Bidding Prayers: Bidding of the Beads]

At the rood the officiating priest turns west to face the congregation and says the bidding prayers.

The Processionale indicates that when the Bidding Prayers take place they follow the procession before Mass, except in parish churches, where the Bidding of the Beads takes place ‘after the Gospel and the Offertory’. Sarum Processionale 1528:5v. Unfortunately ‘after the Gospel and the Offertory’ is ambiguous! Adrian Fortescue, The Mass (1915):295 takes it to mean after the Gospel; Nick Sandon, The Use of Salisbury I (1984):4 takes it to mean after the Offertory. Daniel Rock, The Church of our Fathers II (1905):292 and 294 equivocates. Fortescue, however, also suggests that directly following ‘Oremus’ (this edition, p. 24) is the place where, historically, the ‘Prayers of the Faithful’ belonged: ‘This beginning without a continuation remains as a relic, and an indication of the place of the old prayers of the faithful.’ (Op. cit.:296.). But the ‘Oremus’ appears directly before the offertory, not after! In The Book of Common Prayer, 1552 and 1662, the ‘Prayer for the Church Militant’ appears directly after the Offertory Verse. The weight of argument, together with the logical flow of the Mass, places the parish Bidding of the Bedes directly after the Offertory chant, and before the prayer ‘Suscipe Sancta Trinitas’.

The Bidding of the Bedes is studied in detail in Brightman, The English Rite: 1020 ff.

See also H. O. Coxe, Forms of Bidding Prayer (Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1840), which contains, among others, a form from the diocese of Worcester, 1349, a form from the time of Henry VI, found in Bodelian Gough Missal 54, a form from John Mirk’s Liber Festivalis, 1483, a from from the York Manuale, 1509, and a from from the time of Henry VIII.

Oremus pro ecclesia Romana

V. Ostende nobis Domine

11
Prayer. Deus qui charitatis dona

Oremus pro animabus

V. Requiem eternam dona eis

Prayer. Absolve quesumus Domine animas famulorum tuorum

12
Resp. Letentur celi et exultet terra

13
V. Vox clamantis in deserto

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine poteniam tuam et veni : ut ab imminentibus

Prayer. Deus cujus miseratione anime fidelium

V. Requiescant in pace

15
Second Sunday in Advent
Resp. Rex noster adveniet Christus (Matins R. 9)

V. Vox clamantis in deserto

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine corda nostra

16
Third Sunday in Advent
Resp. Ecce radix Jesse (Matins R. 9)

V. Vox clamantis in deserto

Prayer. Aurem tuam quesumus Domini precibus nostris

17
Fourth Sunday in Advent
Resp. Montes Israel (Matins R. 9)

V. Vox clamantis in deserto.

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam et veni : et magna

18
Vigil of the Nativity

Nativity, December 25
The procession exits the chancel through the west door, turning right to circle the chancel.  The party is followed by the boys, then the clerks of the second form, and then the clerks of the superior grade, and then the four seniors.  The procession will continue west along the south aisle of the nave, turning east to continue up the centre aisle of the nave to the rood.

19
Order of Procession
The woodcut indicates water-bearer, three crucifers, sub-deacon and deacon, flanked by thurifers and taperers, priest in cope.

Resp. Descendit de celis (Matins R. 3)

20
Prose. Felix Maria; Familiam custodi

On the Christmas Proses see Thomas Forrest Kelly, “Neuma Triplex”, Acta Musicologica, LX-1 (1988): 1-30.

21
V. Tanquam sponsus

Prose. Familiam custodi Christe

V. Gloria Patri

22
Prose. Te Laudant alme rex

23
Ant. Hodie Christus natus est (Second Vespers)

V. Benedictus qui venit

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut nos Unigeniti tui

24
After Second Vespers: Procession to the Altar of St. Stephen
‘. . . per medium chori . . .’ indicates that the procession will exit through th west door of the chancel and then turn right and continue in a clockwise direction to the altar of St. Stephen and the martyrs in the south east chapel, directly to the south of the lady chapel.

Resp. Sancte Dei preciose

25
Prose. Te mundi

26
V. Gloria et honore

27
Prayer. Da nobis quesumus Domine imitari

Presumably the procession continues in a clockwise manner, re-entering the chancel through the west doors (as indicated below, p. 34, ‘intret per ostium occidentale‘).

Resp. Stirps Jesse

V. Speciosus forma pre filiis hominum

Prayer. Deus qui salutis eterne beate Marie

28
Saint Stephen, December 26

29
After Second Vespers, procession to the altar of the Apostles
This procession is similar to that for St. Stephen, but its object is the altar of the apostles, immediately to the north of the lady chapel.

Resp. in medio ecclesie

Prose. Nascitur

30
V. Valde honorandus

Prayer. Ecclesiam tuam quesumus Domine benignus

31
Saint John, December 27

After Second Vespers, procession to the altar of the Holy Trinity (Salve)
This procession is similar to the previous two, but its object is the altar of the Holy Trinity (Salve) in the Lady chapel.  It would be more typical for the altar in the Lady chapel to be dedicated to the blessed Virgin, but in Salisbury Cathedral the high altar has that dedication.  It is nevertheless called the Lady chapel because that is where the daily sung office and mass of the Blessed Virgin take place.

Resp. Centum quadraginta quattuor milia

33
Prose. Sedentem in superne

34
V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Deus cujus hodierna die preconium innocentes

35
Blessing. Princeps ecclesie

V. Adjutorium nostrum

37
Holy Innocents, December 28

After Second Vespers: procession to the altar of St. Thomas

37
Resp. Jacet granum

Prose. Clangat pastor

V. Ora pro nobis

40
Prayer. Deus pro cujus ecclesia gloriosus pontifex

The Day of St. Thomas

41
The Sixth Day of the Nativity
Graduale Sarisburiense:18 has the following: ‘R. Descendit. . . . vel R. Verbum caro. . . . in redeundo Te laudat. vel Hodie Christus.

St. Silvester

Circumcision, January 1
Resp. Verbum caro factum est (Nativity, Matins R. 9)

42
Prose. Quem etherea

43
Resp. Te laudant angeli

44
V. Post partum

The full text of this versicle does not appear anywhere in the printed processionals.  However, being one of the most commonly used versicles, that would not have posed a problem.

45
The Epiphany
Resp. Tria sunt munera (Matins R. 6)

46
Resp. Reges Tharsis (Vespers R.)

47
Resp. In columbe specie (Matins R. 9)

48
V. Vox Domini super aquas

Prayer. Deus qui hodierna die Unigenitum tuum gentibus

First Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany
Resp. Abscondi tanquam aurum

49
Prayer. Concede quesumus misericors Deus fragiliati nostre

Septuagesima
Ant. Ecce charissimi dies illa

52
Resp. Ubi est Abel

V. Domine refugium factus es nobis

Prayer. Preces populi tui quesumus Domine clementer exaudi

54
Sexagesima
Resp. Benedicens ergo Deus Noe

Graduale Sarisburiense:26 has the following: ‘In revertendo R. Volens Noe scire.’

55
V. Domine refugium factus es nobis

Prayer. Deus qui conspicis quia ex nulla

Quinquagesima
Resp. Tentavit Deus Abraham

Graduale Sarisburiense:27 has the following: ‘In revertendo R. Revertenti Abraham.’

56
V. Domine refugium factus es nobis

Prayer. Preces nostras quesumus Domine clementer exaudi

Wednesday at the beginning of Lent
From the Seven penitential psalms through the distribution of ashes also appears in the Missals.  (See Noted Missal 243-255.)

Seven Penitential Psalms

57
‘Ego sum peccavi’ (II Kings 24:17): ‘And David said to the Lord, when he saw the angel striking the people: It is I; I am he that have sinned, I have done wickedly . . .’

The penitential psalms also appear in the Psalter [417]

(1) Ps. 6. Domine ne in furore

58
(2) Ps. 31. Beati quorum remisse sunt iniquitates

(3) Ps. 37. Domine ne in furore tuo

59
(4) Ps. 50. Miserere mei Deus

60
(5) Ps. 101. Domine exaudi orationem meam : et clamor meus

62
(6) Ps. 129. De profundis

(7) Ps. 142. Domine exaudi orationem meam : auribus percipe

63
Ant. Ne reminiscaris Domine (after Tob. 3:3; cf. Joel 2:17)
This Antiphon, in its long form, is the basis of the petition ‘Remember not, Lord, our offences’ in the BCP Litany.

Kyrie eleyson

V. Salvos fac servos tuos

Prayer. Exaudi Domine preces nostras

64
Prayer. Adsit quesumus Domine famulis tuis inspiratio gratie

Prayer. Da quesumus Domine Deus noster his famulis

Prayer. Preveniat hos famulos [tuos]

Prayer. Adesto Domine supplicatinibus nostris

Prayer. Domine Deus noster qui offensione nostra

65
Prayer. Deus cujus indulgentia omnis homo indiget

Absolution. Absolvimus vos vice beati Petri

Blessing of Ashes
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deui qui misereris omnium

66
Prayer. Deus qui non mortem sed penitentiam

V. Memento homo quod cinis es

Ant. Exaudi nos Domine quoniam

This antiphon appears in British Library Cotton MS Tiberius C 1 98r with adiastematic notation which appears to match the diastematic version.  The psalm verse is different: ‘Salvum fac populum tuum Domine . . .’ (Ps.27:9).

67
Ant. Justa vestibulum et altare

68
Ant. Immutemur habitu in cinere

Prayer. Deus qui juste irasceris

69
Prayer. Concede nobis quesumus Domine presidia militie Christiane sanctis

70
Ejection of penitents
The procession exits through the west door of the chancel to the west door of the church.  (This may in fact be the southernmost of the western doors, as suggested in another place.)  An acolyte bearing a silken banner goes first, followed by the officiant, flanked by taperers, followed by the bishop (if present) flanked by thurifers, followed by other priests of the choir.  Apparently the procession itself is in silence.  We may presume that the station pictured in the woodcut is facing west.  The responsories are sung whilst the ejection is taking place.

Resp. Ecce Adam (R. 8 of Septuagesima)

71
Resp. In sudore vultus tui (ferial R. of Septuagesima week)

72
The procession would return to the chancel via the central aisle of the nave, and through the west entrance of the chancel.

Resp. Emendemus in melius (R. 3.  of first Sunday in Lent)

73
First Sunday of Lent
Ant. Cum venerimus ante conspectum

75
Resp. Ductus est Jesus in desertum (Matins R. 9)

76
V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. Deus qui ecclesiam tuam annua quadragesimali

Wednesdays and Fridays throughout Lent
A possible order of visiting altars–at Salisbury Cathedral–would be from the most northerly in the great transept, and continuing in a clockwise manner around the chancel to the most southerly of the great transept.  In fact the most that could be visited in this schedule would be eleven.
1) St. Thomas
2) St. Edmund
3) St. John the Baptist
4) St. Martin
5) St. Katherine
6) The Apostles
7) All Saints (Salve)
8) St. Stephen
9) St. Mary Magdalene
10) St. Nicholas
11) St. Margaret
12) St. Lawrence
13) St. Michael
However, perhaps more likely would be to follow the order that is used for the washing of the altars on Maundy Thursday: beginning with the nothernmost altar in the north-east transept, St. Martin.

Resp.  Afflicti pro peccatis nostris

77
Resp. Paradisi portas aperiet nobis (Matins R. 4)

78
Resp. Scindite corda vestra (Matins R. 5)

79
Resp. Abscondite elemosinam (Matins R. 6)

80
Kyrieleyson

V. Ostende nobis Domine

81
V. Exurge Domine adjuva nos

82
Prayer. Preces nostras quesumus Domine clementer exaudi

Litany
The Litany, which is sung during the return to the chancel after a procession to one of the side altars (in order), is different from the Litany of the Breviary.  This shorter form of the Litany names only 3 apostles/evangelists, 3 martyrs, 3 confessors, and 3 virgins/matrons on each day, beginning with the order given in the breviary, but diverging as the days proceed.  There are 11 such lists, concluding on Wednesday in the sixth week of Lent, the day before Maundy Thursday.  Thus these processions would cover up to 11 of the 13 side altars in Salisbury Cathedral.  Presumably in churches with less than 11 side altars the cycle would begin to repeat.

The MS processional reproduced in Wordsworth, Ceremonies and Processions of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury:64 indicates that the first of the altars to be visited in Salisbury Cathedral is that of St. Martin, the northernmost in the eastern transept.  This source also omits any indication of the use of the litany during the  return to the chancel.

Within this litany are found several saints that are not listed in the breviary litany: Kenelm, Edmund, and Cuthburga.

83
Wednesday in the first week of Lent

84
Friday in the first week of Lent

Wednesday in the seccond week of Lent

Friday in the second week of Lent

85
Wednesday in the third week of Lent

Friday in the third week of Lent

86
Wednesday in the fourth week of Lent

Friday in the fourth week of Lent

87
Wednesday in the fifth week of Lent

Friday in the fifth week of Lent

88
Wednesday in the sixth week of Lent

Second Sunday in Lent
Resp. Minor sum cunctis (Lent 2, R. 9)

89
V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. Deus qui conspicis omni nos virtute

90
Third Sunday in Lent
Ant. In die quando veniet Dominus
This antiphon bears a connection to the text of the sequence ‘Dies irae dies illa’.

92
Resp. Loquens Joseph fratribus suis (Matins R. 9)

93
V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus vota

Fourth Sunday in Lent
Resp. Audi Israel precepta Domini (Matins R. 9)

94
V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui ex merito

Passion Sunday
Resp. Circundederunt me viri (R. at first vespers)

95
Resp. In proximo est tribulatione mea (Matins, R. 9)

96
V. Eripe me de inimicis

Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus familiam tuam propicius respice

Palm Sunday
The procession also appears in the Missal (Noted Missal:478-500)

See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:166-171.

Lesson. Venerunt filii Israel

97
Gospel. Turba multa que convenerat

98
Prayer. Exorcizo te creatura florum

99
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui in diluvii

Prayer. Deus cujus Filio pro salute generis humani

100
Prayer. Deus qui dispersa congregas

Prayer. Domine Jesu Christe mundi conditor

101
Ant. Pueri Hebreorum tollentes (Ant. at sext)

Ant. Pueri Hebreorum vestimenta (Ant. at terce)

102
Ant. Prima autem azimorum

103
The procession exits the western door of the chancel, entering the cloister through the south transept, and continuing in a clockwise direction through the cloister, exiting through the canons’ doorway at the north-west corner of the cloister.  The procession continues outside the church to a station to the north-east of the church

Ant. Cum appropinquasset Dominus Hierusolimam

105
Ant. Cum audisset populus

106
Ant. Ante sex dies solennitatis

107
Ant. Ante sex dies passionis

108
First station.  It may be that the proximity to the north-east entrance to the church-yard is intended to represent an entrance into the city of Jerusalem.

Gospel. Cum appropinquasset Jesus Hierosolymam

109
‘. . . eminenti loco . . .’  This may have been a temporary stage.

Lectio. Hierusalem respice ad orientem
The high range of the music may  reflect the use of a boy’s voice.

Ant. En rex venit

110
Ant. Salve quem Jesum

Lectio. Ecce Salvator venit

111
V. Hic est qui de Edom venit

Ant. Salve lux mundi

112
Lectio. Ecce qppropinquabit

V. Hic est ille qui ut agnus

113
Ant. Dignus est Domine Deus noster

Ant. Occurunt turbe cum floribus

114
Resp. Dominus Jesus ante sex dies

Resp. Cogitaverunt autem principes

115
Second station.  This would be in the canons’ cemetery.  ’eminentiores loco’ could be either a temporary stage or the roof of the sacristy or the chapter house.

Ant. (Hymn) Gloria laus et honor
Theodulph, Bishop of Orleans (d. 821).

117
The procession enters the cloister from a doorway on the east side, and turning left continues through the cloister in a clockwise manner, exiting the cloister through the no-longer-extant Canons’ door at the north-west corner of the cloister.

Ant. Collegerunt pontifices

Third station, before the West doors.

118
V. Unus autem ex ipsis

The procession enters the church through the great west doors and continues up the centre aisle of the nave to the Rood at the crossing.

Resp. Ingrediente Domino

119
Fourth station, before the Rood.

Ant. Ave Rex noster

121
The procession enters the chancel through its west doors.

V. Eripe me de inimicis meis

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui humano generi

Friday of the Last Supper

Reconciliation of penitents
A reenactment of this ceremony appears at The Experience of Worship.

122
Lesson. Adest tempus o venerande

123
Ant. Venite
This antiphon appears in British Library Cotton MS Tiberius C 1 164v with adiastematic notation which appears to match the diastematic version.

Ant. Filie audite me

124
V. Salva fac servos tuos

125
Prayer. Adesto Domine supplicationibus nostris

Prayer. Deus humani generis

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens

126
Absolution. Absolvimus vos vice

Blessing. Benediction Dei Patris

127
Hymn. O Redemptor sume carnem

129
Washing of the altars
The series of altars provided in the printed processionals is a generic series that can be adapted to local circumstances.  It proceeds in a hierarchical manner: the Deity, angels, apostles, martyrs, confessors, virgins, and the superaltar in the vestry.

[The series of altars specific to Salisbury Cathedral appears in the Salisbury Processional manuscript.  It also appears in Wordsworth, Ceremonies and Processions (1901),  and is edited in the appendix to the Processional (forthcoming; see below for ‘Companion’ notes).  In this series, following the high altar (and the shrine altar), the remaining altars are washed in what is for the most part a counterclockwise procession moving from the north-east transept around to the north-west transept.  (Chantry altars and miscellaeous altars are not part of this particular ceremony.  However, it is likely that the chaplains attached to those altars would have washed them separately from this main corporate procession.) Both the hierarchy and the geography of a particular church can be considered in developing a suitable plan.]

Recognizing the generic form in the printed processionals, and the specific form used at Salisbury Cathedral, one is in a good position to construct a suitable series for the altars in any given church.

The responsories follow the order of Matins on Maundy Thursday, with the addition of the R. Circundederunt me viri from first vespers on Passion Sunday, appointed as the final responsory.

Resp. In monte oliveti (Maundy Thursday, R. 1.)

131
Altar of the Holy Trinity
Resp. Tristis est anime mea (Maundy Thursday, R. 2.)

V. Sit nomen Domini benedictum

132
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui dedisti

Altar of St. Michael and the Angels
Resp. Ecce vidimus eum (Maundy Thursday, R. 3.)

133
V. In conspectu angelorum

Prayer. Deus qui miro ordine angelorum

Altar of the Apostles
Resp. Unus ex discipulis meis (Maundy Thursday, R. 4.)

134
V. In omnem terram exivit sonus

Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus ut beati apostoli tui

Altar of the Martyrs
Resp. Judas mercator (Maundy Thursday, R. 5.)

135
V. Letamini in Deo

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus ut qui sanctorum martyrum tuorum Johannis baptiste

Altar of the Confessors
Resp. Una hora (Maundy Thursday, R. 6)

136
V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Deus qui nos sanctorum confessorum tuorum

Altar of the Virgins
Resp. Seniores populi (Maundy Thursday, R. 7.)

137
V. Adducentur regi virgines

Prayer. Indulgentiam nobis, Domine

The Superaltar in the Vestry

138
V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Concede, quesumus, omnipotens Deus, ut intercessio Dei genitricis

The following responsories would be used, if needed, for additional altars.

Resp. O Juda qui dereliquisti (Maundy Thursday, R. 8.)

139
Resp. Relevabunt celi (Maundy Thursday, R. 9.)

140
The Washing of Feet
Gospel. Ante diem festum pasche

141
The antiphons that follow are unusual in that they are sung in full at the beginning and also after every verse of their psalms. The psalms are unusual in that the intonation is–presumably–used at the beginning of each verse.  In these respects they follow the form of officia (introits).

Ant. Mandatum novum do vobis (Jo. 13:34.)
The Psalm-tone is unusual in that the mediation is a simple inflection on the final accent, and that the second half begins with an intonation on A.

Ant. Diligamus nos invicem (after 1. Joh. 4:7.)

142
Ant. In diebus illis mulier (after Luke 7:37-38.)
This is also sung as the antiphon to the Magnificat at first vespers of St. Mary Magdalene.

143
Ant. Maria ergo unxit pedes Jesu (after Jo. 12:3.)

144
Ant. Post quam surrexit Dominus a cena (after Jo. 13:5, 15.)
The Psalm-tone is unusual in that the intonation uses the ‘solemn’ form (as in the officium, mode IV) and the ending does not confrom to any of the usual Sarum endings for tone IV; rather, it conforms to the ending of tone IV at the officium.

Ant. Vos vocatis me Magister (Jo. 13:13.)

145
Ant. Si ego Dominus (after Jo. 13:14.)

Ant. Ante diem festum pasche, sciens

146
Ant. Venit ad Petrum
This antiphon appears in only one source in CANTUS.

147
V. Suscepimus Deus misericordiam tuam

Prayer. Adesto quesumus Domine officio servitutis nostre

Gospel.  Amen amen dico vobbis : non est servus major

150
Friday on the day of Preparation (Good Friday)
[The Reproaches]
V. Popule meus quid fecit tibi

153
Ant. Ecce lignum crucis

Ant. Crucem tuam adoramus Domine

154
Ps. 66. Deus misereatur nostri

Hymn. Crux fidelis inter omnes
This hymn is of late 6th c. Gallican origin (The Oxford Anthology of Music: Medieval Music (1977):15. 

The text ‘Crux fidelis’ is the third verse of the hymn ‘Lustra sex’ for lauds in passiontide.

Together with the fifth verse, ‘Sola digna’ and a doxology, it forms the hymn for the holy cross, use on the feasts of the Invention of the Holy Cross and the Exaltation of the Holy Cross.

In the 1977 edition ‘Crux fidelis’ is labelled ‘refrain’, and ‘Pange lingua’ ‘hymn’.  Indeed, the ‘crucial’ verse of the hymn has been taken as a refrain, in the same was as a psalm-verse might be taken as an antiphon for a psalm.

Interestingly, in LU:642, from which the 1977 edition is taken, ‘Crux fidelis . . . flore germine’ is sung after every odd-numbered verse, and ‘Dulce lignum . . . pondus sustinet’  is sung after every even-numbered verse; ‘Amen’ is sung before the final repetition of the latter part of the refrain.

Hymn. Pange lingua gloriosi
This setting comprises the four verses of the hymn ‘Pange lingua’ for matins in passiontide, together with the first two verses of the hymn ‘Lustra sex’ for lauds in passiontide.  Of course all of these stanzas belong to the same 6th century hymn of Venantius Fortunatus.

158
Ant. Dum fabricator mundi
This antiphon appears in only four sources in CANTUS
The range of this chant is exceptional.  Presumably the repetition would conclude at ‘salutis notre’.

160
The Deposition Ceremony
Resp. Estimatus sum

161
Resp. Sepulto Domino

162
Ant. In pace in idipsum

Ant. In pace factus est

163
Ant. Caro mea
This antiphon appears in only six sources in CANTUS

Holy Saturday on the Vigil of the Pasch
The blessing of the new fire through to the end of the Exultet also appears in the Missal.

According to Gueranger, the shift of this service from the night to earlier in the day (i.e. afternoon)  occurred during the 11th. Century. (The Liturgical Year: Passiontide and Holy Week: 551.)

164
Ps. 26. Dominus illuminatio mea

Procession to the New Fire
‘through the midst of the Quire’ suggests that the Procession commences by exiting the West doorway of the Quire.  Presumably the Procession would continue west down the Nave to the Font.  The Font was located two bays to the west of the present Font, in the centre of the Nave, in the centre of the third bay from the west.

165
Blessing of the Fire and Incense
Evidently at Salisbury Cathedral the new fire was kindled between the two pillars that make up the south arcade, presumably on the bench.  The Priest would be in the Nave just to the north of the fire, while the Thurifer would be in the South aisle, just to the south of the fire. While the rubrics indicate that the Thurifer is to the south of the fire, the woodcut shows the Thurifer to the north of the fire.  (The rubrics should be considered more authoritative than the wooduts.)
Such a fire is traditionally kindled from a flint; British Library, Harley MS 2977. a 14th. c. Rituale from Bury St. Edmunds Abbey indicates, ‘. . . accipiat novum ignem de berillo vel de ferro et lapide si sol non apparuerit’ (‘. . . let him take the new light from beryl or from iron and stone if the sun shall not appear’).  As suggested, if the sun does appear, the new would be kindled from either a beryl crystal or a concave mirror.  Indeed it appears that in the early afternoon on Easter eve the suns rays entering through the south aisle window would fall directly on the place of the new fire.

166
V. Dominus vobiscum

Prayer. Domine Deus noster Pater omnipotens
‘omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum’ John 1:9.
‘et sicut illuminasti . . . ‘ appears to be a later addition. It is not found in the earlier Sarum sources, nor is it commonly found elsewhere. It makes the connection between the new fire and the pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21) and it invokes a blessing upon the candle on the spear, which is otherwise not specifically blessed.

167
V. Dominus vobiscum

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens

Prayer. Celesti lumine quesumus Domine
The phrases ‘nos participes’ and ‘percipiamus effect/affectu’ suggest that this Prayer was originally intended as a Postcommunion; ‘Celesti lumine’ suggests its use at Epiphany. This prayer is the subject of a detailed analysis by Daniel McCarthy OSB in The Tablet, January 3, 2009, p. 20.

Exorcism. Exorcizo te immundissime spiritus
This exorcism appears to be unique to the Sarum Rite. It does not appear in the Rouen or York sources.

168
Prayer. Eternam ac justissimam pietatem tuam
‘. . . sicut incensum jecoris piscis . . . liberationem.’ cf. Tob. 6:5-8; 8:2-3.

Prayer. Descendat benedictio tua Domine
‘Dirigatur otatio mea . . . ‘ Ps. 140:2.
‘bonus odor Deo’ 2 Cor. 2:15.

169
Procession to the Paschal Candle
Hymn. Inventor rutili
Text a cento from the ‘Hymn ad incensum lucernae’ by Pruentius (Cathemerinon 5)

Given the rubric ‘in redeundo‘ we ought to assume that all those not taking direct part in the Blessing of the Paschal Candle return to their usual places in the Quire.

This hymn appears in British Library Cotton MS Tiberius C 1 95v with adiastematic notation which appears to match the diastematic version.  Between stanzas ‘Splendent ergo’ and ‘Per quam splendor’ appear three further stanzas: ‘O res digna’, ‘Tu lux vera’, and ‘Per Christum genitum’.

170
Station at the Paschal Candle
The Sarum sources do not specify the location of the Paschal Candle, perhaps because of the variations in the layout of different presbyteries.  In Salisbury Cathedral the Paschal Candle would presumably be set up in the 7th bay of the church (counting from the east), or the third bay of the presbytery. (The Presbytery Step was originally located at the west edge of the 7th bay, one bay to the west of the current chancel railing.) The woodcuts found in the Processionals show the Paschal Candle on the south side of the presbytery. During the Exultet the Deacon in fact faces not the unlit Paschal Candle to the south, but the lighted Spear to the north–at least until the lighting of the Paschal Candle.

The more typical location of the Paschal Candle in the western liturgies is on the North side of the sanctuary (Frederick George Lee, A Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms (London: Bernard Quaritch, 1877):117).

171
The Processionals makes clear what is not clear in the missals, that the function of the Subdeacon is to hold the Text.

172
[Proclamation] Exultet jam angelica
As noted in David Hiley, Western Plainchant (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990):51. the Sarum form of the melody appears to be an ornamented form of the simpler melody that is found in Hereford, York, Rouen, and Paris sources, among others.
At (8.) ‘cum Sancto Spiritu’ is not normally found in the Roman Rite. It appears in both the Sarum and York texts, but not in the printed Hereford Missal. It also occurs in the Leofric Missal of the 10th-11th. c. and in a Parisian Missal dated 1481.
At (18.) ‘et nostrum’ is not found in the Roman Rite. It appears in the Sarum and York texts, and in the printed Hereford Missal. It also occurs in the Leofric Missal of the 10th-11th. c. and in the Rouen Missal 1495, but not in the Parisian Missal 1481.
At (21.) ‘et nox ut dies illuminabitur, after Ps. 138:12.
‘et nox illuminatio mea in deliciis meis, Ps. 138:11.

179
It may be presumed that a pause in the singing takes place while the Deacon places incense in the Paschal Candle and in the small candle on the spear.  The Deacon would have to turn to the south to affix the incense into the Paschal Candle.

The Paschal Candle is lit from the small candle on the spear.  Considering that the spear is held by someone standing in the Presbytery, it would be most likely that, if necessary, a ladder would be used to reach the top of the Paschal Candle (which was as high as 36 feet at Salisbury Cathedral).

(It may be that on subsequent occasions within Eastertide the Paschal Candle was extinguished and relit via the south triforium, which at just over 40 feet is slightly higher than the 36 feet of the Paschal Candle.)

With the movement of the Spear-bearer and the focus on turning to the Paschal Candle, it would seem appropriate that the Deacon (and Subdeacon bearing the Text) re-orient themselves at this time to the south, facing the newly lit Paschal Candle.

At (26.) many non-Sarum sources have ‘mutuati tamen luminis’. These include Hereford, Rouen, Paris, and Rome.
The Leofric and York Missals omit ‘tamen’.
At (27.) the Paris Missal 1481 and the Hereford Missal have ‘Alitur a liquantibus’.
The Roman Missal has ‘Alitur enim liquantibus
The Leofric Missal, Rouen Missal 1495, and York Missal 1533 are the same as Sarum here.

The Hereford Missal And Rouen Missal 1495 add here the following: ‘O vere et mirabilis apis : cujus nec sexum masculi violant, fetus non quassant, nec filii destruant [‘destruunt’, Rouen} castitatem. Sicut sancta concepit virgo Maria, virgo peperit, et virgo permansit.’
The Leofric Missal has a longer passage: ‘Apes ceteris que subjecta sunt homini animantibus antecellit. Quum sit minima corporis parvitate, ingentes animos angusto versat in pectore, viribus imbecillis, sed fortis ingenio. O vere beata et mirabilia apes. O vere et mirabilis apes, cujus nec sexum masculi violant, fetus non quassant, nec filii destruant castitatem. Sicut sancta concepit virgo Maria, virgo peperit, et virgo permansit.’

At (28.) the Roman Missal, the Paris Missal 1481, and York Missal 1533 have ‘O vere beata nox’. Hereford and Rouen 1495 follows Sarum here.
At (29.) the Roman Missal York 1533, Paris 1481, have ‘Oramus ergo te’. The Leofric Missal the Hereford Missal, and the Rouen Missal 1495 and the same as Sarum here.
At (30.) the Roman Missal has ‘Et in odorem’; the Hereford Missal has ‘accensus’.
At (34.) the Roman Missal 1962 has ‘omnemque clerum’ and ‘una cum beatissimo papa nostro N. et antistite nostro N.’ and adds after ‘gaudiis’, ‘assiduus protectione regere, gubernare, et’ The Paris Missal, 1481, has ‘una cum papa nostro N. et antistite nostro N. necnon et gloriosissimo rege nostro N.’
The York Missal 1533 has ‘in archiepiscopo nostro’.
The Hereford Missal has ‘et antistite nostro N. necnon et Anglorum rege N. et principe nostro N.’
The amended text of the Leofric Missal is ‘papa nostro, et archiepiscopo nostro
atque rege nostro’.
The Rouen Missal, 1495. has ‘et Antistite nostro N. necnon Francorum rege N.’
35. The conclusion appears in the Sarum, Hereford and Rouen Uses. Many other sources, such as Paris 1481, and York 1533, end with the common doxology, ‘Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum’ etc.

Beginning at the reference to the Pope, there is a wide divergence of endings that have been occasioned by historical circumstances. Thomas Forrest Kelley, The Exultet in Southern Italy (New York, Oxford University Press, 1996), provides a great deal of information on the history, style, and variations of the Exultet.

183
The lessons and tracts appear in the Missal but not in the Processional.

Sevenfold Litany: Kyrieleyson
The Litany and blessing of the font appear in the Processional but not the Missal.

184
Procession to the font

185
Five-part Litany: Kyrieleyson

186
Station at the font

187
V. Dominus vobiscum

188

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus adesto magne pietatis

V. Dominus vobiscum

V. Sursum corda

196
Litany. Rex sanctorum angelorum
AH-50:#183, p. 242. (Attributed doubtfully to Ratpertus, monk of St. Gall, d. after 884.)
Translation © 2014 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

‘. . . a metrical Litany dating from around the 10th century. It may have begun in St. Gall, but spread quickly throughout the bishoprics of Germany before being approved for church use by Pope Nicholas III. The original is a sort of abbreviated (or sevenfold) litany which also included in some places a variable stanza to a certain local patron saint (such as St. Gall). This Litany was associated with the seven penitential psalms, after which it was sung. Since this usually happened on a vigil, and the Vigils of Easter and Pentecost included the blessing of the font, stanzas 6, 7, and 8 are sung on such occasions where baptizands are present.’ Matthew Carver, Hymnoglypt, April 19, 2014.

Ending as it does on B, this chant appears to fall outside the modal classification system; however, the Verse endings on G, as well as the extent of the range to low D would justify labeling it Mode VIII.

Adult baptism on the Easter Vigil was a very rare event during the middle ages, seeing that infant baptism was practised pretty much universally.

A metrical translation by Pearson (omitting verses 6-8) appears in The Sarum Missal in English:170. Another translation,’Thou the holy angels’ King’ (again omitting verses 6-8) appears in Warren’s Sarum Missal I:284. Although it is in rhyme it does not follow the metre of the original.

The liturgy continues with the Mass. See the Missal, 743.

199
Easter Day
[A Visitatio sepulchri appears in two manuscripts from the Church of St. John the Evangelist (Augustinian), Dublin, Bodleian LIbrary MS Rawl. liturg. d. 4 (15846) and Dublin, Archbishop Marsh Library Ms Z 2.2.20. The play took place between the third responsory of matins and the Te Deum.   The full text–without the music–is printed in Young, The Drama of the Medieval Church I:347-350.  See also Maire Egan-Buffet and Alan J. Fletcher, ‘The Dublin “Visitatio Sepulchri” Play’, Proceedings ot the Royal Irish Academy: Archaeology, Culture, History, Literature 90C (1990): 159-241.]

The Procession and Mass on Easter Day has been edited by Terence Bailey in W Thomas Marrocco and Nicholas Sandon, eds., The Oxford Anthology of Medieval Music (London: Oxford University Press, 1977): 22-47. 

See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:171-174.

The Elevatio ceremony

200
Ant. Christus resurgens

202
V. Surrexit dominus de sepulchro

Prayer. Deus qui pro nobis Filum tuum crucis patibulum

The Aspersion
Ant. Vide aquam

203
Procession before mass
The procession exits the west doorway of the chancel and down the centre aisle of the nave, exiting the church by the great west door–or perhaps down the south aisle of the nave, and exiting through the south door of the east facade–or perhaps entering the cloisetr throught the south transept, and following the same route as the Palm-Sunday procession.  The procession turns right and makes a clockwise circuit of the entire church and cloister before re-entering through the same west door.  However, at Salisbury the churchyard wall abuts the south side of the cloister, preventing passage to the south of the cloister; thus the procession must have entered the cloister through its eastern door, turned immediately left to follow the cloister in a clockwise direction, and exited the cloister through the no-longer-extant Canons’ door at the north west corner of the cloister.  Then the procession would enter the church through the great west door and continue up the centre aisle of the nave and into the chancel.

In churches without a great west door–such as many parish churches–exit and entrance would be through the main entrance way, usually the south porch.

Prosa. Salve festa dies
Based on the hymn by Venantius Fortunatus (d. circa 600)

See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:174-175.

206
The suggestion that the procession re-entered the church ‘[probably] through the Canons’ Door’ that appears in The Oxford Antology of Music: Medieval Music (1977):23 is contradicted by the rubric ‘per idem ostium qua egressa est’.  At the same place the suggestion that ‘the ending of the hymn was intended to coincide with the arrival of the procession before the rood’ is incorrect. The following antiphon, Sedet angelus’ was begun upon entering the church, rather than when the procession had reached the rood at the east end of the nave, as stated in Medieval Music:23.

The hymn appears to be somewhat too short to cover the time taken to process down the nave, around the outside of the church, and into the nave, some 600 metres in all.  The hymn (perhaps 6 minutes length) could conceivably be sufficiently lengthy to cover a procession around a small parish church, however.

It would seem that the following antiphon was begun upon entering the church, or perhaps when the font was reached, rather than when the procession had reached the rood at the east end of the nave, as stated in Medieval Music:23.

Ant. Sedit angelus ad sepulchrum

207
V. Crucifixum in carne laudate
It is notable that it is not the dialogue: ‘Nolite metuere” etc. that is sung by the clerks in the pulpit, which would give a definitely dramatic quality to the performance, but rather the verse, which has the character of a commentary.

V. Surrexit Dominus de sepulchro
The music provided in Medieval Music:25 appears to be incorrect.  It is the melodic formula of a short responsory, not a versicle.

Prayer. Deus qui hodierna die per Unigenitum tuum eternitatis

208
At Vespers
The procession at vespers also appears in the Breviary:1248.

Ant. Alleluya. Ps. Laudate pueri Dominum

210
Station at the font

212
Alleluya. V. Laudate pueri Dominum

V. Surrexit Dominus de

213
Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui resurrectionis

Ant. Alleluya. Ps. In exitu Israel de Egypto

218
V. Dicite in nationibus.

219
Prayer. Deus qui pro nobis Filium tuum crucis patibulum

V. Sancta dei genitrix

Prayer. Gratiam tuam quesumus Domine mentibus nostris infunde

Monday in Easter Week
The Breviary includes the rubrics for processions at lauds and vespers throughout the week.

220
Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus ut festa paschalia

Tuesday in Easter Week
Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut per hec festa paschalia

221
Wednesday in Easter Week
Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui festa paschalia ágimus

Thursday in Easter Week
Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut ecclesia tua et suorum

Friday in Easter Week
Prayer. Adesto quesumus Domine familie tue et dignanter impende

222
Saturday in Easter Week

Sunday in the Octave of Easter

223
First Sunday after the Octave of Easter
Ant. Ego sum alpha et oo

225
Monday in the Rogation Days
‘. . . exeat per ostium ecclesie occidentale et per portam claustri borealem . . .’  I would suggest that the procession exits the west door of the church and then the north gateway of the church-yard.  The city of Salisbury lies to the north of the cathedral.

Christian Frost, Time, Psace, and Order: The Making of Medieval Salisbury (2009), suggests that the rogations processions at Salisbury were: Monday, to the church of St. Thomas the martyr; Tuesday, to the church of St. Martin; Wednesday, to the Church of St. Edmund.  St. Thomas’s dates from around 1220; St. Martin’s was an Anglo-Saxon foundation; St. Edmund’s was established in 1269.

226
‘For prayer is the wing of the soul by which she fleeth to heaven, to the end that she may follow Jesu Christ ascending up before us to show us the way.  And know ye that the soul that aboundeth in plenty of flesh, and hath but few pens and feathers, he may not well fly.  Thus this Litany is called procession, for then the Church maketh general procession.  And in this procession the cross is borne, the clocks and the bells be sounded and rung, the banners be borne, and in some churches a dragon with a great tail is borne.  And aid and help is demanded of all saints.  And the cause why the cross is borne and the bells rung is for to make the evil spirits afraid and to flee; for like as the kings have in battles tokens and signs-royal, as their trumpets and banners, right so the king of heaven perdurable hath his signs militant in the Church.  He hath bells for business and for trumps, he hath the cross for banners.  And like as a tyrant and a malefactor should much doubt when he shall hear the business and trumps of a mighty king in his land, and shall see his banners, in like wise the enemies, the evil spirits that be in the region of the air, doubt much when they hear the trumpets of God which be the bells rung, and when they see the banners borne on high.  And this is the cause why the bells be rung when it thundereth, and when great tempests and outrages of weather happen, to the end that the fiends and the evil spirits should be abashed and flee, and cease of the moving of tempests.  Howbeit also that there is another cause therewith; that is for to warn the Christian people, that they put them in devotion and in prayer, for to pray God that the tempest may cease.  There is also the banner of the King, that is the cross, which the enemies dread much and doubt.  For they dread the staff with which they have been hurt.  And this is the reason wherefore in some churches in the time of tempest and of thunder, they set out the cross against the tempest to the end that the wicked spirits see the banner of the sovereign king, and for dread thereof they flee.  And therefore in procession the cross is borne, and the bells rung for to chase and hunt away the fiends being in the air, and to the end that they leave to tempest us.  The cross is borne for to represent the victory of the resurrection, and of the ascension of Jesu Christ.  For he ascended into Heaven with all a great prey.  And thus this banner that flyeth in the air signifieth Jesu Christ ascending into heaven.  And as the people follow the cross, the banners, and the procession, right so when Jesu Christ styed up into heaven a great multitude of saints followed him.  And the song that is sung in the procession signifieth the song of angels and the praisings that came against Jesu Christ and conducted and conveyed him to heaven where is great joy and melody.  In some churches, and in especial in them of France, is accustomed to bear a dragon with a long tail filled full of chaff or other thing.  The two first days it is borne before the cross, and on the third day they bear it after the cross, with the tail all void, by which is understood that the first day tofore the law, or the second under the law, the devil reigned in the world, and on the third day, of grace, by the passion of Jesu Christ, he was put out of his realm.’ The Golden Legend (Caxton, 1483):22v.

The text of the procession appears in the ‘Crawford Missal’, Rylands-24:112 ff. (see Legg, The Sarum Missal:150).

Ant. Exurge Domine adjuva nos

227
Ant. Surgite sancti de mansionibus
This antiphon appears in only two sources in CANTUS.

(It is notable that all of these rare chants in this group appear in GB-WO F. 160.  However nothing should be assumed as a result, seeing that CANTUS focusses on antiphonals, not processionals.)

228
Ant. De Hierusalem exeunt reliquie
This antiphon appears in only four sources in CANTUS.

229
Ant. In nomine Domine Dei nostri
This antiphon appears in only one source in CANTUS, GB-WO F. 160.

230
Ant. Domine Rex Deus Abraham
This antiphon appears in only four sources in CANTUS.

Ant. Nunquid est in ydolis genitum
This antiphon appears in only four sources in CANTUS.

231
Ant. Exaudi Domine populum
This antiphon appears in only four sources in CANTUS.

232
Ant. Respice Domine qui aruit

233
Ant. Inundaverunt aque Domine
This antiphon appears in only three sources in CANTUS.

234
Ant. Non nos demergat Domine
This antiphon appears in only three sources in CANTUS.

235
Ant. Libera Domine populum tuum
This antiphon appears in only two sources in CANTUS.

236
Litany

240
Prayer. Deus cui proprium est misereri semper et parcere

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus : qui facis mirabilia magna

Prayer. Deus qui charitatis dona per gratiam Sancit Spiritus

Prayer. Deus a quo sancta desideria cuncta

Prayer. Ineffabilem misericordiam tuam nobis

Prayer. Fidelium Deus omnium Conditor et Redemptor

241
Prayer. Pietate tua quesumus Domine nostrorum

Mass of the Fast
Officium. Exaudivit de templo sancto suo

242
Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus ut [qui] in afflictione

Epistle. Confitemini alterutrum

243
Grad. Alleluya. Confitemini quoniam bonus

Gospel. Dixit Jesus discipulis suis, Quis vestrum habebit

244
Offert. Confitebor Domino nimis in ore

Comm. Petite et accipietis

245
Mass of the Sunday
Officium.  Vocem jocunditatis

246
Prayer. Deus, a quo cuncta bona procedunt

Epistle. Estote factore verbi

247
Alleluya. V. Usque modo non petistis

Gospel. Dixit Jesus discipulis suis, Amen amen dico vobis : si quid petieritis

248
Offert. Benedicite gentes

249
Comm. Cantate Domino alleluya

Vigil of the Ascension
Offic. Omnes gentes plaudite

250
Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Pater, ut nostras mentis intentio

Lesson. Multitudinis autem credentium

Alleluya. Omnes gentes plaudite

251
Gospel. Sublevatis Jesus oculis in celum dixit, Pater venit hora

Offert. Viri Galilei

252
Comm. Pater cum essem cum eis

253
(First) Litany
Kyrieleyson qui precioso sanguine

255
Second Litany
Kyrieleyson

258
Third Litany
Kyrieleyson

259
Fourth Litany
Kyrieleyson

263
V. Vox leticie

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus ut in resurrectione Domini

V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Infirmitatem nostram quesumus Domine propicius respice

Ascension

264
See also the hymn. Chorus nove Hierusalem (Breviary 1312): ‘ . . .2. Quo Christus invictus leo, Dracone surgens obruto . . .’

Prose. Salve festa dies
Based on the hymn by Venantius Fortunatus (d. circa 600)
See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:174-175.

267
Resp. Viri Galilei (Matins R. 3)

268
Resp. Non conturbetur cor vestrum (First Vespers)

269
V. Ascendit Deus in jubilatione

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui hodierna die Unigenitum tuum

Sunday in the Octave of the Ascension

270
The Vigil of Pentecost

Pentecost
Prose. Salve festa dies
Based on the hymn by Venantius Fortunatus (d. circa 600)
See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:174-175.

272
Resp. Spiritus Sanctus procedens (Matins R. 3)

273
Ant. Hodie completi sunt dies Penthecostes

274
V. Loquebantur variis linguis

Prayer. Deus, qui hodierna die corda fidelium Sancti Spíritus illustratione docuisti

Holy Trinity
Resp. Summe Trinitati (Matins R. 9)

275
Resp. Honor virtus et potestas (Matins R. 6)

276
V. Sit nomen Domini benedictum

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui dedisti famulis tuis

277
Corpus Christi
Prose. Salve festa dies
Based on the hymn by Venantius Fortunatus (d. circa 600)
See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:174-175.

281
Resp. Respexit Helyas ad caput (Matins R. 3)
Terrence Bailey (Sarum Processions:29) suggests that this responsory may have been selected for the procession on account of its text: ‘et ambulavit . . . ad montem Dei.’

282
Ant. O sacrum convivium (Second Vespers)

V. Panem de celo

Prayer. Deus qui nobis sub sacramento mirabili

283Sunday in the Octave of Corpus Christi

[Octave of Corpus Christi]
In the New Ordinal (predating the 1531 Breviary) this octave day is with rulers of the choir.  Thus, according to the New Ordinal it would have a procession, but according to the 1531 Breviary it would not.  Hence the rubric in the 1517 and later processionals: ‘ubi octave habentur cum regimine chori’.

284
Saturdays from Trinity to Advent at Vespers
This procession appears also in the Breviary.

Ant. O crux gloriosa

285
Ant. O crux splendidior

286
Ant. Crux fidelis

287
V. Adoramus te Christe

Prayer. Deus qui Unigeniti Filii tui

Ant. Beata Dei genitrix

Antiphonale Sarisburiense:295. gives the following list of Marian antiphons: ‘In redeundo de sancta Maria. Ant. Beata Dei genitrix. vel Alma redemptoris. vel Ave regina. vel O gloriosa [genitrix]. vel Ibo michi. vel O quam pulchra. vel Speciosa.’

288
Ant. Ave regina celorum

289

Ant. Alma Redemptoris mater

290
Ant. Speciosa facta es

291
Ant. Ibo michi ad montem

Ant. Quam pulchra es

292
Ant. Tota pulchra es amica mea

294
Ant. Ascendit Christus super celos

295
Ant. Anima mea liquefacta est

296
Ant. Descendi in ortum meum

V. Sancta Dei genitrix

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens et misericors Deus fragilitati

297
Sundays from the Octave of the Holy Trinity until Advent
Resp. Benedicat nos Deus (Trinity Matins R.1)

298
Resp. Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel (Trinity Matins R.2)

299
Resp. Quis Deus magnus sit Deus noster (Trinity Matins R.3)

Resp. Magnus Dominus (Trinity Matins R.4)

300
Resp. Gloria Patri geniteque Proli (Trinity Matins R.5)

301
Resp. Honor virtus (Trinity Matins R.6)
It is not clear why this particular responsory is not printed in full in the processionals.

302
Resp. Tibi laus tibi gloria (Trinity Matins R.7)

303
Resp. Benedicamus Patrem (Trinity Matins R.8)

304
Ant. Adoremus crucis signaculum

Ant. Salvator mundi salva nos

V. Hoc signum erit in celo.

Prayer. Adesto nobis domine Deus noster et quos

305
Graduale Sarisburiense:141: ‘. . . In revertendo semper aliqua antiphona de sancta Maria. Ant. Ave regina. Ant. Alma redemptoris. Ant. Beata Dei [genitrix]. Ant. O gloriosa [genitrix]. Ant. Sancta Maria. Ant. Quam pulchra. Ant. Ibo michi. Ant. Speciosa.’ 

306
Dedication of the Church
Prose. Salve festa dies
Based on the hymn by Venantius Fortunatus (d. circa 600)
See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:174-175.

308
Resp. Terribilis est locus iste (first vespers, Dedication)

309
V. Beati qui habitant in domo tua

Prayer. Deus qui nobis per singulis annos

310
Vigil of St. Andrew
Resp. Vir iste in populo (Matins R. 9)

311
V. in omnem terram

Prayer. Majestatem tuam quesumus Domine suppliciter exoramus

Prayer. Queumus omnipotens Deus : ut beatus Andreas

Ant. Salvator mundi salva nos omnes

312
V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Infirmitatem nostram quesumus Domine

313
Saint Nicholas
Resp. Ex ejus tumba marmorea (Matins R. 9)

314
V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Deus bonitatis auctor et bonorum dispensator

Conception of the Blessed Virgin
According to Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:45, seeing that this feast is a minor double, at the procession before mass, the antiphon, versicle and prayer on the return to the chancel should be of All Saints, and that this discrepancy has in fact been emended in Bodleian Library Ms. liturg. 408 and in Caius College Ms 436.  Bailey further suggests that the re-use of the antiphon etc. from the Nativity of the BVM may have been ‘tolerated’ at Sailsbury on account of the dedication of the cathedral to the Virgin.

Further, ‘in churches not dedictated to the Virgin there would be no need to include the feasts of the Conception or Annunciation in the processional.  Both are feasts of the third highest classification [i. e. minor double], which ordinarily would receive processions only on a Sunday; and both fall in periods when the dominical service was not displaced . . .’ (Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:9).

Saints of Nine Lessons (in ‘ordinary’ time)

315
Ant. Te gloriosus apostolorum chorus

Saints Fabian and Sebastian
Resp. Elegit Dominus virum

317
Saint Agnes
Resp. Induit me Dominus

318
Saint Vincent
Resp. Preciosus martyr Vincentius

319
Conversion of St. Paul
Resp. Celebremus conversionem

321
Purification of the Blessed Virgin
See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:165-166.

A  celebration of Sarum Candlemas took place at Merton College Oxford in 1997.

A celebration of Sarum Candlemas took place at St. Thomas Church, Toronto in 2010.

322
V. Dominus vobiscum

Prayer. Benedic Domine Jesu Christe hanc creaturam cere

323
Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui hodierna die Unigenitum

344
V. Sursum corda

327
V. Dominus vobiscum

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens lumen indeficiens

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus : qui Unigenitum tuum ante tempora

328
Ant. Lumen ad revelationem

Ps. Nunc dimittis

329
Ant. Ave gratia plena
This is the Latin version of the Byzantine sticheron Chaere cecaritomeni

Ant. Adorna thalamum tuum Sion
This is the Latin version of the Byzantine sticheron Cathacosmyso.  The music, too, with its characteristic repetitions, may be of Byzantine origin.

330
Resp. Responsum accepit Symeon
Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:166.  suggests–with caution–that this responsory melody may of Byzantine origin.

332
Resp. Videte miraculum matris

333
V. Suscepimus Deus

Prayer. Exaudi domine plebem tuam et quem intrinsecus

Saint Agatha

The Annunciation
Resp. Christi virgo dilectissima

334
Ant. Ingressus angelus ad Mariam

335
V. Rorate celi

Prayer. Deus, qui de beate Marie virginis utero

St. George
A version of the hymn Salve festa dies for the feast of St. George appears at the end of Bodleian Library MS lat. liturg. e.7. 637 (32704) (Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:5).

336
St. Mark

St. Vitalis

Sts. Philip and James

337
Invention of the Holy Cross
Ant, O crux gloriosa

The older sources have here Ant. Christus resurgens, borrowed from the beginning of Easter day.

338
V. Hoc signum crucis

Prayer. Deus qui in preclara salutifere crucis inventione

Resp. O crux gloriosa

A version of the hymn Salve festa dies for feasts of the Cross appears at the end of Bodleian Library MS 637 (2024) (Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:4).

339
St. John at the Latin Gate

St. Dunstan

340
Vigil of St. John the Baptist
Resp. Tu puer propheta

341
Prayer. Sancti Johannis baptiste martyris tui

St. John the Baptist
A version of the hymn Salve festa dies for the feast of St. John the Baptist appears in Archbishop Marsh Library, Dublin, MS Z 4.2.20  (Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:8).

Resp. Inter natos mulierum

342
Sts. John and Paul
In the New Ordinal (predating the 1531 Breviary) this feast is with rulers of the choir.  Thus, according to the New Ordinal it would have a procession, but according to the 1531 Breviary it would not.

Sts. Peter and Paul
Resp. Quodcumque ligaveris

344
Commemoration of St. Paul
Resp. Sancte Paule apostole

345
The Visitation
Prose. Salve festa dies
Based on the hymn by Venantius Fortunatus (d. circa 600)
See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:174-175.

348
Octave of Sts. Peter and Paul

Translation of St. Thomas

Feast of Relics

St. Margaret
Resp. Audi filia et vide

349
V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Exaudi nos Deus salutaris noster ut sicut de beate Margarete

350
St. Mary Magdalene
Prayer. Sacratissimam Domine beate Marie Magdalene

Resp. O felix sacrorum

351
St. Anne
Beata virgo virginum

Bodleian LIbrary MS Bodl. 637 (2024) contains a prayer for a procession at Vespers to the altar of St. Anne. (Bailey, Processions of Sarum:4)

353
St. Peter in Chains
Resp. Dixit angelus ad Petrum

354
The Transfiguration
Terrence Bailey (The Processions of Sarum:175) indicates the hymn Salve festa dies at the feast of the Transfiguration, but I see no evidence of this in the sources.

Resp. Videns Petrus Moysen

356
The Name of Jesus
Prose. Salve festa dies
Based on the hymn by Venantius Fortunatus (d. circa 600)
See Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:174-175.

359
St. Lawrence
Resp. Meruit esse hostia Christi (Matins R. 9)

V. gloria et honore

360
Prayer. Da nobis quesumus omnipotens Deus : viciorum nostrorum

The Old Ordinal (Frere, Use of Sarum II:123. indicates alternative prayers as well: ‘Letetur ecclesia [tua Deus beati N]’ (common of one martyr) and ‘Beati Laurencii [martyris tui]’ (secret, octave of St. Laurence),

St. Ypolitus

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin
Resp. Felix namque (Matins R. 9)

361
Resp. Super salutem (Matins R. 6)

362
Ant. Ascendit Christus super celos (First Vespers, at Magnificat)

363
V. Exaltata es sancta Dei genitrix

Prayer. Veneranda nobis Domine hujus diei

364
Resp. Candida virginitas (Second vespers)

A version of the hymn Salve festa dies for the feast of the Assumption appears in Archbishop Marsh Library, Dublin, MS Z 4.2.20  (Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:8).

365
Beheading of St. John the Baptist

The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin
Resp. Solem justicie (Matins R. 9)

366
Resp. Ad nutum Domini (Matins R. 6)

367
Ant. Nativitas tua Dei genitrix (Ant. on Magnificat, first vespers)

368
Prayer. Supplicationem servorum tuorum Deus

Exaltation of the Holy Cross
Resp. Per tuam crucem (Matins R. 9)

A version of the hymn Salve festa dies for feasts of the Cross appears at the end of Bodleian Library MS 637 (2024) (Terrence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum:4).

369
St. Matthew
Resp. Cum abularent animalia (Matins R. 9)

370
St. Michael
Resp. Fidelis sermo (Matins R. 6)

371
V. Stetit angelus

372
Prayer. Beati archangeli tui Michaelis interventione

The Old Ordinal has here the prayer ‘Perpetuum nobis’ from the Missa de angelis.  A later hand has changed this in the margin to ‘Beati Michaelis archangeli’, a variant of the above prayer.

Resp. Te sanctum Dominum (First vespers R.)

373
St. Denis
Resp. Beatus Dionysius (Matins R. 9)

374
Translation of St. Edward, King and Confessor
Resp. Sancte Edwarde (Common of confessors)

375
V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Deus qui unigenitum tuum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum

376
St. Michael in Mount Tumba
Resp. Archangeli Michaelis (Matins, R. 9)

377
St. Luke

All Saints Day
Resp. Concede nobis Domine (Matins R. 9)

379
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui nos omnium sanctorum

St. Martin
Resp. Martinus Abrahe sinu (Matins R. 9)

380
V. Ora pro nobis.

Prayer. Deus qui bonitatis auctor es et bonorum dispensator

St. Brice
In the New Ordinal (predating the 1531 Breviary) this feast is with rulers of the choir.  Thus, according to the New Ordinal it would have a procession, but according to the 1531 Breviary it would not.

St. Edmund, Bishop and Confessor
V. Ora pro nobis

381
Prayer. Plenam nobis etertne salvator tue virtutis

St. Edmund, King and Martyr
V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui beati Edmundi

St. Cecilia
Resp. Dum aurora finem daret (Matins R. 9)

382
St. Clement
Resp. Oremus omnes ad Dominum (Matins R. 3)

384St. Katharine
Resp. Virgo flagellatur (Matins R. 6)

V. Ora pro nobis

385
Prayer. Deus qui dedist legem Moysi in summitate notis Synay

Resp. O mater nostra ter sancta (Matins R. 9)

387
One Apostle or Evangelist in Eastertide
Resp. Candidi facti sunt Nazarei (First Vespers)

388
One Martyr or Confessor in Eastertide
Resp. Filie Hierusalem (First Vespers)

389
One or Many Apostles outside Eastertide
Resp. Cives apostolorum (Matins R. 9)

390
One Martyr Beheaded when the History of the Common is read
Resp. Percepturus jam vir sanctus (Matins R. 9)

391
One Martyr not Beheaded when the History of the common is read
Resp. Beatus vir qui suffert (Matins R. 9)

392
Many Martyrs when the History of the Common is read
Resp. In circuitu tuo Domine (Matins R. 9)

393
One confessor and Bishop (or Doctor)
Resp. Miles Christi (Matins R. 9)

394
One Confessor and Doctor or Abbot when the History of the Common is read

Many Confessors
Resp. Sint lumbi vestri precincti (Matins R. 9)

395
One Virgin and Martyr when the History of the Common is read
Resp. Regnum mundi et omnem ornatum (Matins R. 9)

397
Processions made of necessity

For Serene Air

For Rain

398
Against the death of men in time of war

For peace
Resp. Domine Rex omnipotens (History of Judith, R. 2)

399
Resp. Dominator Domine (History of Judith, R. 3)

400
Resp. Exaudiat Dominus orationes nostras (History of Maccabees, R. 2)

401
Resp. Tua est potentia (History of Maccabees, R. 3)

Resp. Domine Deus qui conteris bella (History of Tobias, R. 9)

403
Litany
Kyrieleyson

406
Prayer. Infirmitatem nostram quesumus propicius respice

When a body is brought to the church
Ant. Subvenite sancti Dei

407
Resp. Libera me Domine (Matins of the Dead, R. 9)

408
Ant. In paradisum

409
Kyrieleyson

V. A porta inferi

Prayer. Suscipe Domine servum tuum

V. Anima ejus et anime omnium fidelium

Procession for veneration
410

V. Salvum fac servum tuum

Prayer. Concede quesumus domine, famulo tuo N. metropolitano nostro

V. Ostende nobis Domine

411
Prayer. Deus in cujus manu corda sunt regum

412
Antiphons of the Blessed Virgin
Ant. Salve regina
attr. Hermann of Reichenau, 11th. c.
Performing trans. Winfred Douglas, Monastic Diurnal: 155; Scholarly trans. based on Rev. Adrian Fortescue, 1913.  Verses trans. Matthew Carver.  © 2013 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
The modern editions begin ‘Salve regina mater misericordie’.
An extensive study of this antiphon appears in Sally Roper, ‘Medieval English Benedictine Liturgy’, (Ph. D. diss., Oxford University, 1988), Vo. I:274-291.

V. Virgo mater ecclesie
The verses constitute an interpolated hymn of four stanzas.
The only other settings of this hymn-text in CANTUS are the adiastematic sources CH-SGs 388:471 and CH-SGs 390:10.

414
Ant. Ave regina celorum Mater regis angelorum
This antiphon is in metre and rhyme.
Performing translation WR; scholarly translation (metrical).© 2019 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Other texts, such as the York Processional,  often have ‘funde preces ad filium’

See also ‘Kathleen Marie McGhee, The Antiphon Ave Regina Caelorum Mater Regis Angelorum in the Music and Art of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.  University of Maryland, 1986.

415
Ant. Nesciens mater

Ant. Ave regina celorum

416
V. Ave Maria gratia plena

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui gloriose virginis et matris

Ant. Sancta Maria non est tibi similis

417
Ant. Mater ora filium
The configuration of this antiphon does not precisely correlate to any ending of Tones V or VI.  However, seeing that all antiphons in the Tonale in Tone VI begin on the finalis, Tone V.i. seems most appropriate.  The question is purely theorectical, seeing that this antiphon is never connected to psalmody,

Ant. Sancta Maria virgo

418
Verse. Quis satis enumeret

‘Endoviensis’ = Eindhoven

420

Gloria Patri responsory verses

422
Gloria Patri officium verses

Notes

‘1882’ refers to Henderson’s Processional ad usum insignis ac praeclarae ecclesiae Sarum

‘1901’ refers to Wordsworth’s Ceremonies and Processions of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury.

Appendix

Maundy Thursday

Washing of the Altars

The series of altars specific to Salisbury Cathedral appears in the Salisbury Processional manuscript.  It also appears in Wordsworth, Ceremonies and Processions (1901).  In this series, following the high altar (and the shrine altar), the remaining altars are washed in a counterclockwise procession moving from the north-east transept around to the north-west transept.  The full series is:
1) High altar, of St. Mary
2) Shrine altar, of St. Osmund, from 1457 (I propose that this shrine and altar were located at the east end of the chancel, behind the high altar.)
In the north east-transept, 3) St. Martin and 4) St. Katherine
At the east end, 5) the apostles (and St. Peter), 6) All saints, and 7) St. Stephen (and the martyrs)
In the south-east transept, 8) St. Mary Magdalene and 9) St. Nicholas
In the south-west transept, 10) St. Margaret, 11) St. Lawrence, and 12) St. Michael
In the nave (two bays west of the crossing), 13) St. Andrew and 14) Sts. George and Dionysius
In the nave (at the crossing) 15) Holy cross (the rood altar)
In the north-west transept 16) St. Thomas of Canterbury, 17) St. Edmund, confessor, and 18) St. John the Baptist (and relics).

It will be noted that in each transept and at the east end the altars are washed in order begining with the most northerly. This pattern is maintained also with the nave altars 13) and 14). It would appear that the approach to the nave altars was by moving from 12) St. Michael westward along the south aisle to the west end and then turning eastward down the central aisle, and passing the font–which will be the focus of the procession on the following day. The most effective approach to the nave altars (13) and 14)) would be if they were directly accessible from the central aisle. This would occur if they were actually located atop the plinths, in the manner of the chantry chapels in the eastern arm.

(Chantry altars and miscellaeous altars are not part of this particular ceremony.  However, it is likely that the chaplains attached to those altars would have washed them independently from this corporate procession.)
Both the hierarchy and the geography of a particular church can be considered in developing a suitable plan for such a procession today, or restoring a procession in a historic context.

The Responsories indicated in the printed processionals are the nine responsories of matins of Maundy Thursday, plus the responsory Circundederent me viri from first vespers of Palm Sunday. The order of these repsonsories as indicated in the processionals is given below.

[1] Altar of the Assumption (high altar)
[Resp. In monte Oliveti]
Prayer. Concede nos famulos tuos (Commemoration of St. Mary after the Purification; that is, the common prayer for St. Mary)

[2] Altar of the shrine of St. Osmund
[Resp. Tristis est anima mea]
Prayer. Deus cujus antiqua miracula (prayer for the feast and translation of St. Osmund)

[3] Altar of St. Martin
[Resp. Ecce vidimus eum]
Prayer. Deus qui conspicis quia ex nulla

[4] Altar of St. Katherine
[Resp. Unus ex discipulis]
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui corpus gloriose

[5] Altar of the Apostles (St. Peter)
[Resp. Judas mercator]
Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus, ut beati apostoli tui (based on the prayer for the vigil of St. Andrew, substituting ‘beati apostoli tui’ for ‘beatus Andreas apostolus tuum’)

[6] Altar of the Holy Trinity (Salve)
[Resp. Una hora non potuistis]
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui dedisti famulis tuis

[7] Altar of St. Stephen (martyrs)
[Resp. Seniores populi]
Prayer. Da nobis quesumus Domine imitari quod colimus (Feast of St. Stephen; presumably ‘natalicia’ would be replaced by commemorationem’ on this day. This form does not appear in the Sarum sources, but it does appear in Officia propria ordinis S. Dominici confessoris (Florence 1697), and in Antiphonarium seu vesperale Bisuntinum (1780):537).

[8] Altar of St. Mary Magdalene
[Resp. Circundederunt me]
Prayer. Largire nobis, clementissime Pater

[9] Altar of St. Nicholas
[Resp. O Juda qui dereliquisti]
Prayer. Deus qui beatum Nicolaum pontificem

[10] Altar of St. Margaret
[Resp. Revelabunt celi]
Prayer. Deus qui beatam virginem Margaretam (note the omission of ‘hodierna die’)

[11] Altar of St. Lawrence
[Resp. In monte Oliveti]
Prayer. Da nobis quesumus omnipotens Deus viciorum nostrorum

[12] Altar of St. Michael
[Resp. Tristis est anima mea]
Prayer. Deus qui miro ordine angelorum

[13] Altar of St. Andrew
[Resp. Ecce vidimus eum]
Prayer. Majestatem tuam Domine suppliciter exoramus (first vespers when the feast is deferred)

[14] Altar of St. George and St. Dionysius
[Resp. Unus ex discipulis meis]
Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, da nobis sanctorum (common of many martyrs)

[15] Altar of the Holy Cross (Rood)
[Resp. Judas mercator]
Prayer. Adesto nobis Domine Deus noster (memorial of the Cross; postcommunion for mass of the Holy Cross)

[16] Altar of St. Thomas the martyr
[Resp. Una hora non potuistis]
Prayer. Deus pro cujus ecclesia gloriosus pontifex

[17] Altar of St. Edmund, confessor
[Resp. Seniores populi]
Prayer. Deus qui largiflue bonitatis

[18] Altar of St. John the Baptist (Relics)
[Resp. Circundederunt me]
Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus ut familia tua per viam (vigil of St. John the Baptist)