Companion to the Processional

Station blessing holy water on Sundays

Woodcuts in the processionals illustrate the order of processions.  They normally supplement the text-descriptions.

The procession is lined up facing the high altar to the east.  At the foot of the Sanctuary steps is the crucifer flanked by taperers and followed by a thurifer.  To the right is the minister bearing a rod (the ‘master of ceremonies’).  In some editions this minister is  indicated on the left rather than the right–this more accurately represents the direction that the procession will take.  Then comes the sub-deacon and deacon flanked by the boy bearing the salt and the water.  Again, in some editions these latter two are indicated on the left rather than the right.  Finally there follows the boy bearing the text, and the priest in a silken cope.  The horizontal line towards the bottom of the woodcut represents the quire step.


Blessing of Salt and Water

Prayer. Exorciso te creatura salis


Prayer. Immensam clementiam tuam

Prayer. Exorciso te creatura aque


Prayer. Deus qui ad salutem humani generis

Prayer. Deus invicte virtutis auctor


‘. . . laicos in presbyterio . . .’ is evidence that certain lay folk were admitted to the prebytery at certain times.  Presumably they would stand near to the north and south entrances of the chancel.

Ant. Asperges me Domine ysopo


Ant. Vide aquam egredientem


V. Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam

Prayer. Exaudi nos Domine sancte Pater omnipotens


In primis procedat ministri virga . . .’  note that the order of procession is not the same as the order of assembly above.  Further, the boys and clerks of the second form follow, and then the clerks of the superior grade, and finally the four seniors (when present), Treasurer, Chancellor, Cantor, and Dean), and the bishop, when present.

The processional route is out the north door of the chancel, and then circling the presbytery in a clockwise fashion.  The procession continues west along the south aisle of the nave to the font, and then continues east along the centre aisle of the nave to the rood.

Omnes autem clerici . . . diei precedentis interfuerint.


First Sunday of Advent

Ant. Missus est angelus Gabriel


Bidding Prayers
[Bidding Prayers: Bidding of the Beads]

At the rood the officiating priest turns west to face the congregation and says the bidding prayers.

The Processionale indicates that when the Bidding Prayers take place they follow the procession before Mass, except in parish churches, where the Bidding of the Beads takes place ‘after the Gospel and the Offertory’. Sarum Processionale 1528:5v. Unfortunately ‘after the Gospel and the Offertory’ is ambiguous! Adrian Fortescue, The Mass (1915):295 takes it to mean after the Gospel; Nick Sandon, The Use of Salisbury I (1984):4 takes it to mean after the Offertory. Daniel Rock, The Church of our Fathers II (1905):292 and 294 equivocates. Fortescue, however, also suggests that directly following ‘Oremus’ (this edition, p. 24) is the place where, historically, the ‘Prayers of the Faithful’ belonged: ‘This beginning without a continuation remains as a relic, and an indication of the place of the old prayers of the faithful.’ (Op. cit.:296.). But the ‘Oremus’ appears directly before the offertory, not after! In The Book of Common Prayer, 1552 and 1662, the ‘Prayer for the Church Militant’ appears directly after the Offertory Verse. The weight of argument, together with the logical flow of the Mass, places the parish Bidding of the Beads directly after the Offertory chant, and before the prayer ‘Suscipe Sancta Trinitas’.

Oremus pro ecclesia Romana

V. Ostende nobis Domine


Prayer. Deus qui charitatis dona

Oremus pro animabus

V. Requiem eternam dona eis

Prayer. Absolve quesumus Domine animas famulorum tuorum


Resp. Letentur celi et exultet terra


V. Vox clamantis in deserto

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine poteniam tuam et veni : ut ab imminentibus

Prayer. Deus cujus miseratione anime fidelium

V. Requiescant in pace


Second Sunday in Advent

Resp. Rex noster adveniet Christus (Matins R. 9)

V. Vox clamantis in deserto

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine corda nostra


Third Sunday in Advent

Resp. Ecce radix Jesse (Matins R. 9)

V. Vox clamantis in desserto

Prayer. Aurem tuam quesumus Domini precibus nostris


Fourth Sunday in Advent

Resp. Montes Israel (Matins R. 9)

V. Vox clamantis in deserto.

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam et veni : et magna


Vigil of the Nativity

Nativity, December 25

The procession exits the chancel through the west door, turning right to circle the chancel.  The party is followed by the boys, then the clerks of the second form, and then the clerks of the superior grade, and then the four seniors.  The procession will continue west along the south aisle of the nave, turning east to continue up the centre aisle of the nave to the rood.


Order of Procession

The woodcut indicates water-bearer, three crucifers, sub-deacon and deacon, flanked by thurifers and taperers, priest in cope.

Resp. Descendit de celis (Matins R. 3)


Prose. Felix Maria; Familiam custodi

On the Christmas Proses see Thomas Forrest Kelly, “Neuma Triplex”, Acta Musicologica, LX-1 (1988): 1-30.


V. Tanquam sponsus

Prose. Familiam custodi Christe

V. Gloria Patri


Prose. Te Laudant alme rex


Ant. Hodie Christus natus est (Second Vespers)

V. Benedictus qui venit

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut nos Unigeniti tui


After Second Vespers Procession to the Altar of St. Stephen

‘. . . per medium chori . . .’ indicates that the procession will exit through th west door of the chancel and then turn right and continue in a clockwise direction to the altar of St. Stephen and the martyrs in the south east chapel, directly to the south of the lady chapel.

Resp. Sancte Dei preciose


Prose. Te mundi


V. Gloria et honore


Prayer. Da nobis quesumus Domine imitari

Presumably the procession continues in a clockwise manner, re-entering the chancel through the west doors (as indicated below, p. 34, ‘intret per ostium occidentale‘).

Resp. Stirps Jesse

V. Speciosus forma pre filiis hominum

Prayer. Deus qui salutis eterne beate Marie

28II’I’intret per ostium occidentale

Saint Stephen, December 26


After Second Vespers, procession to the altar of the Apostles

This procession is similar to that for St. Stephen, but its object is the altar of the apostles, immediately to the north of the lady chapel.

Resp. in medio ecclesie

Prose. Nascitur


V. Valde honorandus

Prayer. Ecclesiam tuam quesumus Domine benignus


Saint John, December 27

After Second Vespers, procession to the altar of the Holy Trinity (Salve)

This procession is similar to the previous two, but its object is the altar of the Holy Trinity (Salve) in the lady chapel.  It would be more typical for the altar in the lady chapel to be dedicated to the blessed Virgin, but in Salisbury Cathedral the high altar has that dedication.

Resp. Centum quadraginta quattuor milia


Prose. Sedentem in superne


V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Deus cujus hodierna die preconium innocentes


Blessing. Princeps ecclesie

V. Adjutorium nostrum


Holy Innocents, December 28

After Second Vespers, procession to the altar of St. Thomas


Resp. Jacet granum

Prose. Clangat pastor

V. Ora pro nobis


Prayer. Deus pro cujus ecclesia gloriosus pontifex


Circumcision, January 1
Resp. Verbum caro factum est (Nativity, Matins R. 9)


Prose. Quem etherea


Resp. Te laudant angeli


V. Post partum

The full text of this versicle does not appear anywhere in the printed processionals.  However, being one of the most commonly used versicles, that would not have posed any problem.


The Epiphany

Resp. Tria sunt munera (Matins R. 6)


Resp. Reges Tharsis (Vespers R.)


Resp. In columbe specie (Matins R. 9)


V. Vox Domini super aquas

Prayer. Deus qui hodierna die Unigenitum tuum gentibus

First Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany

Resp. Abscondi tanquam aurum


Prayer. Concede quesumus misericors Deus fragiliati nostre


Ant. Ecce charissimi dies illa


Resp. Ubi est Abel

V. Domine refugium factus es nobis

Prayer. Preces populi tui quesumus Domine clementer exaudi



Resp. Benedicens ergo Deus Noe


V. Domine refugium factus es nobis

Prayer. Deus qui conspicis quia ex nulla


Resp. Tentavit Deus Abraham


V. Domine refugium factus es nobis

Prayer. Preces nostras quesumus Domine clementer exaudi

Wednesday at the beginning of Lent

Seven Penitential Psalms


‘Ego sum peccavi’ (II Kings 24:17): ‘And David said to the Lord, when he saw the angel striking the people: It is I; I am he that have sinned, I have done wickedly . . .’

The penitential psalms also appear in the Psalter [417]

(1) Ps. 6. Domine ne in furore


(2) Ps. 31. Beati quorum remisse sunt iniquitates

(3) Ps. 37. Domine ne in furore tuo


(4) Ps. 50. Miserere mei Deus


(5) Ps. 101. Domine exaudi orationem meam : et clamor meus


(6) Ps. 129. De profundis

(7) Ps. 142. Domine exaudi orationem meam : auribus percipe


Ant. Ne reminiscaris Domine (after Tob. 3:3; cf. Joel 2:17)
This Antiphon, in its long form, is the basis of the petition ‘Remember not, Lord, our offences’ in the BCP Litany.

Kyrie eleyson

V. Salvos fac servos tuos

Prayer. Exaudi Domine preces nostras


Prayer. Adsit quesumus Domine famulis tuis inspiratio gratie

Prayer. Da quesumus Domine Deus noster his famulis

Prayer. Preveniat hos famulos [tuos]

Prayer. Adesto Domine supplicatinibus nostris

Prayer. Domine Deus noster qui offensione nostra

Prayer. Deus cujus indulgentia omnis homo indiget

Absolution. Absolvimus vos vice beati Petri

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deui qui misereris omnium

Prayer. Deus qui non mortem sed penitentiam

V. Memento homo quod cinis es

Ant. Exaudi nos Domine quoniam

Ant. Justa vestibulum et altare

Ant. Immutemur habitu in cinere

Prayer. Deus qui juste irasceris

Prayer. Concede nobis quesumus Domine presidia militie Christine sanctis

Resp. Ecce Adam

Resp. In sudore vultus tui

Resp. Emendemus in melius

First Sunday of Lent

Ant. Cum venerimus ante conspectum

Resp. Ductus est Jesus in desertum (Matins R. 9)

V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. Deus qui ecclesiam tuam annua quadragesimali

Wednesdays and Fridays throughout Lent

Resp.  Afflicti pro peccatis nostris

Resp. Paradisi portas aperiet nobis (Matins R. 4)

Resp. Scindite corda vestra (Matins R. 5)

Resp. Abscondite elemosinam (Matins R. 6)


V. Ostende nobis Domine

V. Exurge Domine adjuva nos

Prayer. Preces nostras quesumus Domine clementer exaudi


The Litany, which is sung during the return to the chancel after a procession to one of the side altars (in order), is different from the Litany of the Breviary.  This shorter form of the Litany names only 3 apostles/evangelists, 3 martyrs, 3 confessors, and 3 virgins/matrons on each day, beginning with the order given in the breviary, but diverging as the days proceed.  There are 11 such lists, concluding on Wednesday in the sixth week of Lent, the day before Maundy Thursday.  Thus these processions would cover up to 11 of the 13 side altars in Salisbury Cathedral.  Presumably in churches with less than 11 side altars the cycle would begin to repeat.

The MS processional reproduced in Wordsworth, Ceremonies and Processions of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury:64 indicates that the first of the altars to be visited in Salisbury Cathedral is that of St. Martin, the northernmost in the eastern transept.  This source also omits any indication of the use of the litany during the  return to the chancel.

Within this litany are found several saints that are not listed in the breviary litany: Kenelm, Edmund, and Cuthburga.

Wednesday in the first week of Lent

Friday in the first week of Lent

Wednesday in the seccond week of Lent

Friday in the second week of Lent

Wednesday in the third week of Lent

Friday in the third week of Lent

Wednesday in the fourth week of Lent

Friday in the fourth week of Lent

Wednesday in the fifth week of Lent

Friday in the fifth week of Lent

Wednesday in the sixth week of Lent

Second Sunday in Lent

Resp. Minor sum cunctis

V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. Deus qui conspicis omni nos virtute

Third Sunday in Lent

Ant. In die quando veniet Dominus

Resp. Loquens Joseph fratribus suis

V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus vota

Fourth Sunday in Lent

Resp. Audi Israel precepta Domini

V. Scuto circundabit te

Prayer. concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui ex merito

Passion Sunday

Resp. circundederunt me viri

Resp. In proximo est tribulatione mea

V. Eripe me de inimicis

Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus familiam tuam propicius respice

Palm Sunday

The procession also appears in the Missal

Lesson. Venerunt filii Israel

Gospel. Turba multa que convenerat

Prayer. Exorcizo te creatura florum

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui in diluvii

Prayer. Deus cujus Filio pro salute generis humani

Prayer. Deus qui dispersa congregas

Prayer. Domine Jesu Christe mundi conditor

Ant. Pueri Hebreorum tollentes

Ant. Pueri Hebreorum vestimenta

Ant. Prima autem azimorum

Ant. Cum appropinquasset Dominus Hierusolimam

Ant. Cum audisset populus

Ant. Ante sex dies solennitatis

Ant. Ante sex dies passionis

Lectio. Hierusalem respice ad orientem

Ant. En rex venit

Ant. Salve quem Jesum

Lectio. Ecce Salvator venit

V. Hic est qui de Edom venit

Ant. Salve lux mundi

Lectio. Ecce qppropinquabit

V. Hic est ille qui ut agnus

Ant. Dignus est Domine Deus noster

Ant. Occurunt turbe cum floribus

Resp. Dominus Jesus ante sex dies

Resp. Cogitaverunt autem principes

Ant. (Hymn) Gloria laus et honor

Ant. Collegerunt pontifices

V. Unus autem ex ipsis

Resp. Ingrediente Domino

Ant. Ave Rex noster

Ant. Rex noster

VV. Eripe me de inimicis meis

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui humano generi

Friday of the Last Supper

Reconciliation of penitents

Lesson. Adest tempus o venerande

Ant. Venite

Ant. Filie audite me

V. Salva fac servos tuos

Prayer. Adesto Domine supplicationibus nostris

Prayer. Deus humani generis

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens

Absolution. Absolve vos vice

Blessing. Benediction Dei Patris

Hymn. O Redemptor sume carnem

Altar of the Holy Trinity

Resp. Tristis est anime mea

V. Sit nomen Domini benedictum

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui dedisti

Altar of St. Michael and the Angels

Resp. Ecce vidimus eum

V. In conspectu angelorum

Prayer. Deus qui miro ordine angelorum

Altar of the Apostles

Resp. Unus ex discipulis meis

V. In omnem terram exivit sonus

Prayer. Quesumus omnipotens Deus ut beati apostoli tui

Altar of the Martyrs

Resp. Judas mercator

V. Letamini in Deo

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus ut qui sanctorum martyrum tuorum Johannis baptiste

Altar of the Confessors

Resp. Una hora

V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Deus qui nos sanctorum confessorum tuorum

Altar of the Virgins

Resp. Seniores populi

V. Adducentur regi virgines

Prayer. Indulgentiam nobis, Domine

The Superaltar in the Vestry

V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Concede, quesumus, omnipotens Deus, ut intercessio Dei genitricis

Resp. O Juda qui dereliquisti

Resp. Relevabunt celi

Gospel. Ante diem festum pasche

Ant. Mandatorum novum

Ant. Diligamus nos invicem

Ant. In diebus illis

Antt. Maria ergo unxit

Ant. Post quam surrrexit Dominus a cena

The Psalm tone is not part of the regular Sarum tones.  It is here provisionally labelled as IV.x.  Perhaps this ‘non-Sarum’ tone is suggestive of an importation from elsewhere.

Ant. Vos vocatis me Magister

Ant. Si ego Dominus

Ant. Venit ad Petrum

Ant. Ante diem festum pasche

V. Suscepimus Deus misericordiam tuam

Prayer. Adesto quesumus Domine officio servitutis nostre

Gospel.  Amen amen dico vobbis : non est servus major

Friday on the day of Preparation

[The Reproaches]

V. Popule meus quid fecit tibi

Ant. Ecce lignum crucis

Ant. Crucem tuam adoramus Domine

Ps. 66. Deus misereatur nostri

Hymn. Crux fidelis inter omnes

Ant. Dum fabricator mundi

The Deposition Ceremony

Resp. Estimatus sum

Resp. Sepulto Domino

Ant. In pace in idipsum

Ant. In pace factus est

Holy Saturday on the Vigil of the Pasch

According to Gueranger, the shift of this service from the night to earlier in the day (i.e. afternoon)  occurred during the 11th. Century. (The Liturgical Year: Passiontide and Holy Week: 551.)

Ps. 26. Dominus illuminatio mea

Procession to the New Fire

‘through the midst of the Quire’ suggests that the Procession commences by exiting the West doorway of the Quire.  Presumably the Procession would continue west down the Nave to the Font.  The Font was located two bays to the west of the present Font, in the centre of the Nave, in the centre of the third bay from the west.

Blessing of the Fire and Incense

Evidently at Salisbury Cathedral the new fire was kindled between the two pillars that make up the south arcade, presumably on the bench.  The Priest would be in the Nave just to the north of the fire, while the Thurifer would be in the South aisle, just to the south of the fire. While the rubrics indicate that the Thurifer is to the south of the fire, the woodcut shows the Thurifer to the north of the fire.  (The rubrics should be considered more authoritative than the wooduts.)

Such a fire is traditionally kindled from a flint; British Library, Harley MS 2977. a 14th. c. Rituale from Bury St. Edmunds Abbey indicates, ‘. . . accipiat novum ignem de berillo vel de ferro et lapide si sol non apparuerit’ (‘. . . let him take the new light from beryl or from iron and stone if the sun shall not appear’).  As suggested, if the sun does appear, the new would be kindled from either a beryl crystal or a concave mirror.  Indeed it appears that in the early afternoon on Easter eve the suns rays entering through the south aisle window would fall directly on the place of the new fire.

Prayer. Domine Deus noster Pater omnipotens
‘omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum’ John 1:9.
‘et sicut illuminasti . . . ‘ appears to be a later addition. It is not found in the earlier Sarum sources, nor is it commonly found elsewhere. It makes the connection between the new fire and the pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21) and it invokes a blessing upon the candle on the spear, which is otherwise not specifically blessed.

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens

Prayer. Celesti lumine quesumus Domine
The phrases ‘nos participes’ and ‘percipiamus effect/affectu’ suggest that this Prayer was originally intended as a Postcommunion; ‘Celesti lumine’ suggests its use at Epiphany. This prayer is the subject of a detailed analysis by Daniel McCarthy OSB in The Tablet, January 3, 2009, p. 20.

Exorcism. Exorcizo te immundissime spiritus
This exorcism appears to be unique to the Sarum Rite. It does not appear in the Rouen or York sources.

Prayer. Eternam ac justissimam pietatem tuam
‘. . . sicut incensum jecoris piscis . . . liberationem.’ cf. Tob. 6:5-8; 8:2-3.

Prayer. Descendat benedictio tua Domine
‘Dirigatur otatio mea . . . ‘ Ps. 140:2.
‘bonus odor Deo’ 2 Cor. 2:15.

Procession to the Paschal Candle

Hymn. Inventor rutili

Text a cento from the ‘Hymn ad incensum lucernae’ by Pruentius (Cathemerinon 5)

Given the rubric ‘in redeundo‘ we ought to assume that all those not taking direct part in the Blessing of the Paschal Candle return to their usual places in the Quire.

Station at the Paschal Candle

The Sarum sources do not specify the location of the Paschal Candle, perhaps because of the variations in the layout of different presbyteries.  In Salisbury Cathedral the Paschal Candle would presumably be set up in the 7th bay of the church (counting from the east), or the third bay of the presbytery. (The Presbytery Step was originally located at the west edge of the 7th bay, one bay to the west of the current chancel railing.) The woodcuts found in the Processionals show the Paschal Candle on the south side of the presbytery. During the Exultet the Deacon in fact faces not the unlit Paschal Candle to the south, but the lighted Spear to the north–at least until the lighting of the Paschal Candle.

The more typical location of the Paschal Candle in the western liturgies is on the North side of the sanctuary (Frederick George Lee, A Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms (London: Bernard Quaritch, 1877):117).

The Processionals makes clear what is not clear in the missals, that the function of the Subdeacon is to hold the Text.

[Proclamation] Exultet jam angelica
As noted in David Hiley, Western Plainchant (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990):51. the Sarum form of the melody appears to be an ornamented form of the simpler melody that is found in Hereford, York, Rouen, and Paris sources, among others.
At (8.) ‘cum Sancto Spiritu’ is not normally found in the Roman Rite. It appears in both the Sarum and York texts, but not in the printed Hereford Missal. It also occurs in the Leofric Missal of the 10th-11th. c. and in a Parisian Missal dated 1481.
At (18.) ‘et nostrum’ is not found in the Roman Rite. It appears in the Sarum and York texts, and in the printed Hereford Missal. It also occurs in the Leofric Missal of the 10th-11th. c. and in the Rouen Missal 1495, but not in the Parisian Missal 1481.
At (21.) ‘et nox ut dies illuminabitur, after Ps. 138:12.
‘et nox illuminatio mea in deliciis meis, Ps. 138:11.

It may be presumed that a pause in the singing takes place while the Deacon places incense in the Paschal Candle and in the small candle on the spear.  The Deacon would have to turn to the south to affix the incense into the Paschal Candle.

The Paschal Candle is lit from the small candle on the spear.  Considering that the spear is held by someone standing in the Presbytery, it would be most likely that, if necessary, a ladder would be used to reach the top of the Paschal Candle (which was as high as 36 feet at Salisbury Cathedral).

(It may be that on subsequent occasions within Eastertide the Paschal Candle was extinguished and relit via the south triforium, which at just over 40 feet is slightly higher than the 36 feet of the Paschal Candle.)

With the movement of the Spear-bearer and the focus on turning to the Paschal Candle, it would seem appropriate that the Deacon (and Subdeacon bearing the Text) re-orient themselves at this time to the south, facing the newly lit Paschal Candle.

At (26.) many non-Sarum sources have ‘mutuati tamen luminis’. These include Hereford, Rouen, Paris, and Rome.
The Leofric and York Missals omit ‘tamen’.
At (27.) the Paris Missal 1481 and the Hereford Missal have ‘Alitur a liquantibus’.
The Roman Missal has ‘Alitur enim liquantibus
The Leofric Missal, Rouen Missal 1495, and York Missal 1533 are the same as Sarum here.

The Hereford Missal And Rouen Missal 1495 add here the following: ‘O vere et mirabilis apis : cujus nec sexum masculi violant, fetus non quassant, nec filii destruant [‘destruunt’, Rouen} castitatem. Sicut sancta concepit virgo Maria, virgo peperit, et virgo permansit.’
The Leofric Missal has a longer passage: ‘Apes ceteris que subjecta sunt homini animantibus antecellit. Quum sit minima corporis parvitate, ingentes animos angusto versat in pectore, viribus imbecillis, sed fortis ingenio. O vere beata et mirabilia apes. O vere et mirabilis apes, cujus nec sexum masculi violant, fetus non quassant, nec filii destruant castitatem. Sicut sancta concepit virgo Maria, virgo peperit, et virgo permansit.’

At (28.) the Roman Missal, the Paris Missal 1481, and York Missal 1533 have ‘O vere beata nox’. Hereford and Rouen 1495 follows Sarum here.
At (29.) the Roman Missal York 1533, Paris 1481, have ‘Oramus ergo te’. The Leofric Missal the Hereford Missal, and the Rouen Missal 1495 and the same as Sarum here.
At (30.) the Roman Missal has ‘Et in odorem’; the Hereford Missal has ‘accensus’.
At (34.) the Roman Missal 1962 has ‘omnemque clerum’ and ‘una cum beatissimo papa nostro N. et antistite nostro N.’ and adds after ‘gaudiis’, ‘assiduus protectione regere, gubernare, et’ The Paris Missal, 1481, has ‘una cum papa nostro N. et antistite nostro N. necnon et gloriosissimo rege nostro N.’
The York Missal 1533 has ‘in archiepiscopo nostro’.
The Hereford Missal has ‘et antistite nostro N. necnon et Anglorum rege N. et principe nostro N.’
The amended text of the Leofric Missal is ‘papa nostro, et archiepiscopo nostro
atque rege nostro’.
The Rouen Missal, 1495. has ‘et Antistite nostro N. necnon Francorum rege N.’
35. The conclusion appears in the Sarum, Hereford and Rouen Uses. Many other sources, such as Paris 1481, and York 1533, end with the common doxology, ‘Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum’ etc.

Beginning at the reference to the Pope, there is a wide divergence of endings that have been occasioned by historical circumstances. Thomas Forrest Kelley, The Exultet in Southern Italy (New York, Oxford University Press, 1996), provides a great deal of information on the history, style, and variations of the Exultet.

Tract. Cantemus Domino  (after Exodus 15:1 (21), 2; Eccl. 51:2; Judith 16:3)
This Tract is also sung at the Vigil of Pentecost.

Tract. Vinea facta est (after Is. 5:1, 5; 34:15; Judges 16:4; Is. 5:2, Matt. 21:33.)

‘Sorec’ is the name of a valley in the Judean Hills.  Evidently the reference is due to its etymology, as either ‘fruitless tree’ or ‘special vine’.

Tract. Audite celum et loquar (after Deut. 32:1-4.)

Tract. Sicut cervus desiderat (Ps. 41: 2-4) (‘Sicut’ is Old Roman; ‘apparbeo’ is Gallican; ‘per singuos dies’ is neither)

Litany. Rex sanctorum angelorum
AH-50:#183, p. 242. (Attributed doubtfully to Ratpertus, monk of St. Gall, d. after 884.)
Translation © 2014 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

‘. . . a metrical Litany dating from around the 10th century. It may have begun in St. Gall, but spread quickly throughout the bishoprics of Germany before being approved for church use by Pope Nicholas III. The original is a sort of abbreviated (or sevenfold) litany which also included in some places a variable stanza to a certain local patron saint (such as St. Gall). This Litany was associated with the seven penitential psalms, after which it was sung. Since this usually happened on a vigil, and the Vigils of Easter and Pentecost included the blessing of the font, stanzas 6, 7, and 8 are sung on such occasions where baptizands are present.’ Matthew Carver, Hymnoglypt, April 19, 2014.

Ending as it does on B, this chant appears to fall outside the modal classification system; however, the Verse endings on G, as well as the extent of the range to low D would justify labeling it Mode VIII.

Adult baptism on the Easter Vigil was a very rare event during the middle ages, seeing that infant baptism was practised pretty much universally.

A metrical translation by Pearson (omitting verses 6-8) appears in The Sarum Missal in English:170. Another translation,’Thou the holy angels’ King’ (again omitting verses 6-8) appears in Warren’s Sarum Missal I:284. Although it is in rhyme it does not follow the metre of the original.

The liturgy continues with the Mass. See the Missal, 742.

Easter Day

The Procession and Mass on Easter Day has been edited by Terence Bailey in W Thomas Marrocco and Nicholas Sandon, eds., The Oxford Anthology of Medieval Music (London: Oxford University Press, 1977): 22-47.

The Elevatio ceremony

Ant. Christus resurgens

V. Surrexit dominus de sepulchro

Prayer. Deus qui pro nobis Filum tuum crucis patibulum

The Aspersion.

Ant. Vide aquam

Prosa. Salve festa dies

This is often considered a hymn.

Ant. Sedit angelus ad sepulchrum

V. Crucifixum in carne laudate

V. Surrexit Dominus de sepulchro

Prayer. Deus qui hodierna die per Unigenitum tuum eternitatis

At Vespers

Ant. Alleluya. Ps. Laudate pueri Dominum

V. Surrexit Dominus de

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui resurrectionis

Ant. Alleluya. Ps. In exitu Israel de Egypto

V. Dicite in nationibus.

Prayer. Deus qui pro nobis Filium tuum crucis patibulum

V. Sancta dei genitrix

Prayer. Gratiam tuam quesumus Domine mentibus nostris infunde

Monday in Easter Week

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus ut festa paschalia

Tuesday in Easter Week

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut per hec festa paschalia

Wednesday in Easter Week

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui festa paschalia ágimus

Thursday in Easter Week

Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut ecclesia tua et suorum

Friday in Easter Week

Prayer. Adesto quesumus Domine familie tue et dignanter impende

Saturday in Easter Week

Sunday in the Octave of Easter

First Sunday after the Octave of Easter

Ant. Ego sum alpha et oo

Monday in the Rogation Days

‘For prayer is the wing of the soul by which she fleeth to heaven, to the end that she may follow Jesu Christ ascending up before us to show us the way.  And know ye that the soul that aboundeth in plenty of flesh, and hath but few pens and feathers, he may not well fly.  Thus this Litany is called procession, for then the Church maketh general procession.  And in this procession the cross is borne, the clocks and the bells be sounded and rung, the banners be borne, and in some churches a dragon with a great tail is borne.  And aid and help is demanded of all saints.  And the cause why the cross is borne and the bells rung is for to make the evil spirits afraid and to flee; for like as the kings have in battles tokens and signs-royal, as their trumpets and banners, right so the king of heaven perdurable hath his signs militant in the Church.  He hath bells for business and for trumps, he hath the cross for banners.  And like as a tyrant and a malefactor should much doubt when he shall hear the business and trumps of a mighty king in his land, and shall see his banners, in like wise the enemies, the evil spirits that be in the region of the air, doubt much when they hear the trumpets of God which be the bells rung, and when they see the banners borne on high.  And this is the cause why the bells be rung when it thundereth, and when great tempests and outrages of weather happen, to the end that the fiends and the evil spirits should be abashed and flee, and cease of the moving of tempests.  Howbeit also that there is another cause therewith; that is for to warn the Christian people, that they put them in devotion and in prayer, for to pray God that the tempest may cease.  There is also the banner of the King, that is the cross, which the enemies dread much and doubt.  For they dread the staff with which they have been hurt.  And this is the reason wherefore in some churches in the time of tempest and of thunder, they set out the cross against the tempest to the end that the wicked spirits see the banner of the sovereign king, and for dread thereof they flee.  And therefore in procession the cross is borne, and the bells rung for to chase and hunt away the fiends being in the air, and to the end that they leave to tempest us.  The cross is borne for to represent the victory of the resurrection, and of the ascension of Jesu Christ.  For he ascended into Heaven with all a great prey.  And thus this banner that flyeth in the air signifieth Jesu Christ ascending into heaven.  And as the people follow the cross, the banners, and the procession, right so when Jesu Christ styed up into heaven a great multitude of saints followed him.  And the song that is sung in the procession signifieth the song of angels and the praisings that came against Jesu Christ and conducted and conveyed him to heaven where is great joy and melody.  In some churches, and in especial in them of France, is accustomed to bear a dragon with a long tail filled full of chaff or other thing.  The two first days it is borne before the cross, and on the third day they bear it after the cross, with the tail all void, by which is understood that the first day tofore the law, or the second under the law, the devil reigned in the world, and on the third day, of grace, by the passion of Jesu Christ, he was put out of his realm.’ The Golden Legend (Caxton, 1483):22v.

Ant. Exurge Domine adjuva nos

Ant. Surgite sancti de mansionibus

Ant. De Hierusalem exeunt reliquie

Ant. In nomine Domine Dei nostri

Ant. Domine Rex Deus Abraham

Ant. Nunquid est in ydolis genitum

Ant. Exaudi Domine populum

Ant. Respice Domine qui aruit

Ant. Inundaverunt aque Domine

Ant. Non nos demergat Domine

Ant. Libera Domine populum tuum


Prayer. Deus cui proprium est misereri semper et parcere

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus : qui facis mirabilia magna

Prayer. Deus qui charitatis dona per gratiam Sancit Spiritus

Prayer. Deus a quo sancta desideria cuncta

Prayer. Ineffabilem misericordiam tuam nobis

Prayer. Fidelium Deus omnium Conditor et Redemptor

Prayer. Pietate tua quesumus Domine nostrorum

Mass of the Fast

Officium. Exaudivit de templo sancto suo

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus ut [qui] in afflictione

Epistle. Confitemini alterutrum

Grad. Alleluya. Confitemini quoniam bonus

Gospel. Dixit Jesus discipulis suis, Quis vestrum habebit

Offert. Confitebor Domino nimis in ore

Comm. Petite et accipietis

Mass of the Sunday

Officium.  Vocem jocunditatis

Prayer. Deus, a quo cuncta bona procedunt

Epistle. Estote factore verbi

Alleluya.  . . . .

Gospel. Dixit Jesus discipulis suis, Amen amen dico vobis : si quid petieritis

Offert. Benedicite gentes

Comm. Cantate Domino alleluya

Vigil of the Ascension

Offic. Omnes gentes plaudite

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Pater, ut nostras mentis intentio

Lesson. Multitudinis autem credentium

Alleluya. Omnes gentes plaudite

Gospel. Sublevatis Jesus oculis in celum dixit, Pater venit hora

Offert. Viri Galilei

Comm. Pater cum essem cum eis

(First) Litany


Second Litany


Third Litany


Fourth Litany


V. Vox leticie

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus ut in resurrectione Domini

V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Infirmitatem nostram quesumus Domine propicius respice


See also the hymn. Chorus nove Hierusalem (Breviary 1312): ‘ . . .2. Quo Christus invictus leo, Dracone surgens obruto . . .’

Prose. Salve festa dies

Resp. Viri Galilei (Matins R. 3)

Resp. Non conturbetur cor vestrum (First Vespers)

V. Ascendit Deus in jubilatione

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui hodierna die Unigenitum tuum

Sunday in the Octave of the Ascension

The Vigil of Pentecost


Prose. Salve festa dies

Resp. Spiritus Sanctus procedens (Matins R. 3)

Ant. Hodie completi sunt dies Penthecostes

V. Loquebantur variis linguis

Prayer. Deus, qui hodierna die corda fidelium Sancti Spíritus illustratione docuisti

Holy Trinity

Resp. Summe Trinitati (Matins R. 9)

Resp. Honor virtus et potestas (Matins R. 6)

V. Sit nomen Domini benedictum

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui dedisti famulis tuis

Corpus Christi

Prose. Salve festa dies

Resp. Respexit Helyas ad caput (Matins R. 3)

Ant. O sacrum convivium (Second Vespers)

V. Panem de celo

Prayer. Deus qui nobis sub sacramento mirabili

Sunday in the Octave of Corpus Christi

Saturdays from Trinity to Advent at Vespers

Ant. O crux gloriosa

Ant. O crux splendidior

Ant. Crux fidelis

V. Adoramus te Christe

Prayer. Deus qui Unigeniti Filii tui

Ant. Beata Dei genitrix

Ant. Ave regina celorum

Ant. Alma Redemptoris mater

Ant. Speciosa facta es

Ant. Ibo michi ad montem

Ant. Quam pulchra es

Ant. Tota pulchra es amica mea

Ant. Ascendit Christus super celos

Ant. Anima mea liquefacta est

Ant. Descendi in ortum meum

V. Sancta Dei genitrix

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens et misericors Deus fragilitati

Sundays from the Octave of the Holy Trinity until Advent

Resp. Benedicat nos Deus (Trinity Matins R.1)

Resp. Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel (Trinity Matins R.2)

Resp. Quis Deus magnus sit Deus noster (Trinity Matins R.3)

Resp. Magnus Dominus (Trinity Matins R.4)

Resp. Gloria Patri geniteque Proli (Trinity Matins R.1)

Resp. Honor virtus (Trinity Matins R.6)

Resp. Tibi laus tibi gloria (Trinity Matins R.7)

Resp. Benedicamus Patrem (Trinity Matins R.8)

Ant. Adoremus crucis signaculum

Ant. Salvator mundi salva nos

V. Hoc signum erit in celo.

Prayer. Adesto nobis domine Deus noster et quos

Dedication of the Church

Prose. Salve festa dies

Resp. Terribilis est locus iste

V. Beatus qui habitant in domo tua

Prayer. Deus qui nobis per singulis annos

Vigil of St. Andrew

Resp. Vir iste in populo (Matins R. 9)

V. in omnem terram

Prayer. Majestatem tuam quesumus Domine suppliciter exoramus

Prayer. Queumus omnipotens Deus : ut beatus Andreas

Ant. Salvator mundi salva nos omnes

V. Letamini in Domino

Prayer. Infirmitatem nostram quesumus Domine

Saint Nicholas

Resp. Ex ejus tumba marmorea (Matins R. 9)

V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Deus bonitatis auctor et bonorum dispensator

Conception of the Blessed Virgin

Saints of Nine Lessons (in ‘ordinary’ time)

Ant. Te gloriosus apostolorum chorus

Saints Fabian and Sebastian

Resp. Elegit Dominus virum

Saint Agnes

Resp. Induit me Dominus

Saint Vincent

Resp. Preciosus martyr Vincentius

Conversion of St. Paul

Resp. Celebremus conversionem

Purification of the Blessed Virgin

V. Dominus vobiscum

Prayer. Benedic Domine Jesu Christe hanc creaturam cere

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui hodierna die Unigenitum

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater omnipotens lumen indeficiens

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus : qui Unigenitum tuum ante tempora

Ant. Lumen ad revelationem

Ps. Nunc dimittis

Ant. Ave gratia plena

Ant. Adorna thalamum tuum Sion

Resp. Responsum accepit Symeon

Resp. Videte miraculum matris

V. Suscepimus Deus

Prayer. Exaudi domine plebem tuam et quem intrinsecus

Saint Agatha

The Annunciation

Resp. Christi virgo dilectissima

Ant. Ingressus angelus ad Mariam

V. Rorate celi

Prayer. Deus, qui de beate Marie virginis utero

St. George

St. Mark

St. Vitalis

Sts. Philip and James

Invention of the Holy Cross
Ant, O crux gloriosa

V. Hoc signum crucis

Prayer. Deus qui in preclara salutifere crucis inventione

Resp. O crux gloriosa

St. John at the Latin Gate

St. Dunstan

Vigil of St. John the Baptist

Resp. Tu puer propheta

Prayer. Sancti Johannis baptiste martyris tui

St. John the Baptist

Resp. Inter natos mulierum

Sts. John and Paul

Sts. Peter and Paul

Resp. Quodcumque ligaveris

Commemoration of St. Paul

Resp. Sancte Paule apostole

The Visitation

Prose. Salve festa dies

Octave of Sts. Peter and Paul

Translation of St. Thomas

Feast of Relics

St. Margaret

Resp. Audi filia et vide

V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Exaudi nos Deus salutaris noster ut sicut de beate Margarete

St. Mary Magdalene

Prayer. Sacratissimam Domine beate Marie Magdalene

Resp. O felix sacrorum

St. Anne
Beata virgo virginum

St. Peter in Chains

Resp. Dixit angelus ad Petrum

The Transfiguration

Resp. Videns Petrus Moysen

The Name of Jesus

Prose. Salve festa dies

St. Lawrence

Resp. Meruit esse hostia Christi

V. gloria et honore

Prayer. Da nobis quesumus omnipotens Deus : viciorum nostrorum

St. Ypolitus

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin

Resp. Felix namque

Resp. Super salutem

Ant. Ascendit Christus super celos (First Vespers, at Magnificat)

V. Exaltata es sancta Dei genitrix

Prayer. Veneranda nobis Domine hujus diei

Resp. Candida virginitas

Beheading of St. John the Baptist

The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin

Resp. Solem justicie (Matins R. 8)

Resp. Ad nutum Domini (Matins R. 6)

Ant. Nativitas tua Dei genitrix

Prayer. Supplicationem servorum tuorum Deus

Exaltation of the Holy Cross

Resp. Per tuam crucem

St. Matthew

Resp. Cum abularent animalia

St. Michael

Resp. Fidelis sermo

Prayer. Beati archangeli tui Michaelis interventione

Resp. Te sanctum Dominum

St. Denis

Resp. Beatus Dionysius

Translation of St. Edward, King and Confessor

Resp. Sancte Edwarde

V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Deus qui unigenitum tuum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum

St. Michael in Mount Tumba

Resp. Archangeli Michaelis

St. Luke

All Saints Day

Resp. Concede nobis Domine

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui nos omnium sanctorum

St. Martin

Resp. Martinus Abrahe sinu

V. Orate pro nobbis.

Prayer. Deus qui bonitatis auctor es et bonorum dispensator

St. Brice

St. Edmund, Bishop and Confessor

V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Plenam nobis etertne salvator tue virtutis

St. Edmund, King and Martyr

V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui beati Edmundi

St. Cecilia

Resp. Dum aurora finem daret (Matins R. 9)

St. Clement

Resp. Oremus omnes ad Dominum

St. Katharine
Resp. Virgo flagellatur

V. Ora pro nobis

Prayer. Deus qui dedist legem Moysi in summitate notis Synay

Resp. O mater nostra ter sancta

One Apostle or Evangelist in Eastertide

Resp. Candidi facti sunt Nazarei (First Vespers)

One Martyr or Confessor in Eastertide

Resp. Filie Hierusalem (First Vespers)

One or Many Apostles outside Eastertide

Resp. Cives apostolorum (Matins R. 9)

One Martyr Beheaded when the History of the Common is read

Resp. Percepturus jam vir sanctus (Matins R. 9)

One Martyr not Beheaded when the History of the common is read

Resp. Beatus vir qui suffert (Matins R. 9)

Many Martyrs when the History of the Common is read

Resp. In circuitu tuo Domine (Matins R. 9)

One confessor and Bishop (or Doctor)

Resp. Miles Christi (Matins R. 9)

One Confessor and Doctor or Abbot when the History of the Common is read

Many Confessors

Resp. Sint lumbi vestri precincti (Matins R. 9)

One Virgin and Martyr when the History of the Common is read

Resp. Regnum mundi et omnem ornatum (Matins R. 9)

Processions made of necessity

For Serene Air

For Rain

Against the death of men in time of war

For peace

Resp. Domine rex omnipotens

Resp. Dominator Domine

Resp. Exaudiat Dominus orationes nostras

Resp. Tua est potentia

Resp. Domine Deus qui conteris bella



When a body is brought to the church

Ant. Subvenite sancti Dei

Resp. Libera me Domine

Ant. In paradisum


V. A porta inferi

Prayer. Suscipe Domine servum tuum

V. Anima ejus et anime omnium fidelium

Procession for veneration

V. Salvum fac servum tuum

Prayer. Concede quesumus domine, famulo tuo N. metropolitano nostro

V. Ostende nobis Domine

Prayer. Deus in cujus manu corda sunt regum

Antiphons of the Blessed Virgin

Ant. Salve regina

attr. Hermann of Reichenau, 11th. c.

Performing trans. Winfred Douglas, Monastic Diurnal: 155; Scholarly trans. based on Rev. Adrian Fortescue, 1913.  Verses trans. Matthew Carver.  © 2013 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

The modern editions begin ‘Salve regina mater misericordie’.

V. Virgo mater ecclesie

The verses constitute an interpolated hymn of four stanzas.

The only other settings of this hymn-text in CANTUS are the adiastematic sources CH-SGs 388:471 and CH-SGs 390:10.

Ant. Ave regina celorum Mater regis angelorum

This antiphon is in metre and rhyme.

Performing translation WR; scholarly translation (metrical).© 2019 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

Other texts, such as the York Processional,  often have ‘funde preces ad filium’

See also ‘Kathleen Marie McGhee, The Antiphon Ave Regina Caelorum Mater Regis Angelorum in the Music and Art of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.  University of Maryland, 1986.

V. Ave Maria gratia plena

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui gloriose virginis et matris

Ant. Sancta Maria non est tibi similis

Ant. Regina celi letare

Ant. Nesciens mater virgo virum

Ant. Mater ora filium

The configuration of this antiphon does not precisely correlate to any ending of Tones V or VI.  However, seeing that all antiphons in the Tonale in Tone VI begin on the finalis, Tone V.i. seems most appropriate.  The question is purely theorectical, seeing that this antiphon is never connected to psalmody,

Ant. Sancta Maria virgo


‘Endoviensis’ = Eindhoven