This page will provide descriptions and commentary on the sources used in this project. Sigla which are used in the source references, notes and discussion are indicated below in bold.


Breviarium (Chevallon, 1531) ‘1531’
This is the principal text-source for the edition.
This source is edited in 3 vols. by Procter and Wordsworth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1879, 1882, 1886.
In the Sanctorale, the EEBO pdf omits f103v-f103r, the first part of the feast of St. Anne.

British Library Add MS 52359, the Penwortham Breviary ‘BL-52359’
Noted Breviary, early 14th c.
-1r: Temporale
-233r: Kalendar
-283r: Psalter
-285r-356v: Sanctorale through to July 4 (Translation of St. Martin.)
-339r. a collect for the Translation of St. Edmund appears in the lower margin
-340r. a collect for the Translation of St. Richard appears in the lower margin
-356v Sanctorale continues at 488r.
-363v-368r: hymns of the Psalter.
-368r-372v. Venitare and Te Deum beginning; continues at 489r.
-373r-Sanctorale continuing with July 7, Translation of St. Thomas.
-449r-452v: full office of St. Edmund, archbishop.
-452v: three lessons for St. Anianus; prayer for St. Hugh.
-452v-457r: full office of St. Edmund, king.
-466r–488v (followed by 357r-372v): Commune sanctorum
-489r: Te Deum conclusion (from 372v) and Ps. In exitu, Tonus peregrinus.
-490r: Mary Magdalene, St. John Evangelist sequence (490v. ff is in a different hand).
-493r: additions, including St. Edward, King, St. Hugh, St. Anianus, St. Christina

This breviary exhibits here and there some curtailment of melismas–a modest simplification of melodies–as compared to the other Sarum sources. A good example is the responsory Iste cognovit justiciam (Common of One Martyr), f472r. In many instance there is no indication of the V. Gloria Patri. or the subsequent repetenda in the final responsories of nocturns. Although this is essentially a Sarum breviary, it is not purely Sarum. For example, the sentence that closes the matins readings at the Nativity includes the phrase ‘qui hodierna die de Virgine nasci dignatus es’, which belongs to the Use of York. Further, the chants exhibit several special characteristics: in the responsories ‘regular’ phrase-endings often occur where ‘deceptive’ or ‘varied’ endings occur in the usual Sarum sources; in addition, the range of some chants is curtailed, omitting to employ the low ‘Gamma’ in mode II, for example; on 417v. the responsory Quatuor animalia omits the high B that appears in other sources.
There is occasional inaccuracy in the vertical placement of the pitches on the staff lines.
On the other hand, the section beginning at 490v. is exceptionally accurate.

A lecture on this breviary from October 6, 2022, appears at: ‘The Penwortham Breviary: Distinctive Musical Traits in an Early Sarum Noted Breviary‘ for the Churches Conservation Trust

GB-En Adv.18.2.13B The Sprouston Breviary.
‘A late thirteenth-century Sarum breviary with musical notation. It contains offices for St Kentigern, fols 35v–38v, and St Thomas Becket, fols 20v–33r, and a double invocation of Kentigern in the litany. In the calendar there are entries written in a later hand for three church dedications, one of which is of a church at Sprouston. The breviary was thus probably used in the diocese of Glasgow.’ Stephen Mark Holmes, ‘Catalogue of liturgical books and fragments in Scotland before 1560’, The Innes Review 62.2 (2011): 145.

GB-Eu 26. Edinburgh Breviary.
‘Early fourteenth-century illuminated English Sarum breviary, possibly from the diocese of Chichester. The late addition of a collect for St Moluag suggests that it came to Scotland.’ Stephen Mark Holmes, ‘Catalogue of liturgical books and fragments in Scotland before 1560’, The Innes Review 62.2 (2011): 146.

GB-Eu 27. Aberdeen Cathedral Breviary.
‘Early fourteenth-century English noted and illuminated Sarum breviary, which probably came to the diocese of Aberdeen in the fourteenth or early fifteenth century. It includes a Scottish chronicle and obits, and additions to the calendar include: SS Colman (19 February); Monan (1 March); Adrian (4 March); Baldred (6 March); Duthac (8 March); Kessog (10 March); Constantine (11 March); Boniface (16 March); Olaf (30 March); Regulus (31 March); Andrew, translation (9 May); Columba (9 June); Duthac (26 June); Ninian (16 September); dedication of Aberdeen cathedral (3 November); Machar (12 November); and Margaret, translation (16 November). The text of the office of St Kentigern is written on blank folios at the end in a fifteenth century hand. Stephen Mark Holmes, ‘Catalogue of liturgical books and fragments in Scotland before 1560’, The Innes Review 62.2 (2011): 146.

Salisbury Cathedral Library Ms. 224 (Formerly Bodleian Library, MS e Musaeo 2, transferred 1985)
Breviarium ad usum Sarum cum notis, late 14th c. Originally from Great Bedwyn Church
1-516: Temporale
-517-528: Kalendar
-530-532: list of saints for days in lent
-535-634: Psalter
-635-986: Sanctorale
-999-1005: Venitare
-1006 ff: Benedictions

Breviarium Venice, Reynaldum de Novimagio, 1483, octavo (STC-15795-517)
The pdf of this earliest reasonably complete printed Sarum breviary (available through EEBO) is often difficult to read. This breviary is important because it provides shorter lessons at matins. The feast of the Visitation does not appear.

Legenda . . . secundum ordinem Sarum, Paris, Hopyl; Cologne, Byrckman, 1518 Legend-1518′
This single surviving printed edition of the Legenda includes certain lessons additional to those found in the Great Breviary of 1531. These additional readings are for the week of Trinity, an additional set of three lessons following Legenda 24 of the Historia Regum, additional readings for Sapientia, and additional readings for the Common of Many Martyrs. Some readings for which incipits appear in the Antiphonale are given in full here. There is also an extensive reading at the end of the Octave of Corpus Christi which is not part of the usual lessons (this appears in the appendix). The readings for the various ‘histories’ throughout the year are not organized into ‘Legends’ as in the Breviary, but rather as if appointed to ferias and Sundays within each ‘history’. It may be that the readings were actually used this way at some times and places, but the norm for the continuous readings is that the readings will be consecutive as they arise on available ferias and Sundays within each ‘history’.

In the EEBO pdf f. 19v-20r is missing;
one leaf appears to be missing–from lesson seven of St. Mathias to Lesson six of St. David.
There is a lacuna from the middle of lesson 5 of the Annunciation to the middle of lesson 9.
There is a lacuna from lesson 9 of the invention of St. Stephen to the first lesson of Mary ad nives.

Bibliotheque National Ms Latin 17294. (1430-40) ‘Bedford’ Sarum Breviary made for the Duke of Bedford.  Contains spectacular images throughout.
This Breviary does not include the Psalter–but it does contain the common of saints. It omits the Feast of the Visitation.
-8r-374v: Temporale
375r-668v: Sanctorale
669r-670v: blank pages
671r-711v: Commune sanctorum


Bibliotheque National Ms Latin 12036. (early 13th. c.) St Andrews Antiphonal and Diurnal.
Basically Sarum but with some unusual sanctoral items, palaeographically linked with
the De Bernham Pontifical, probably produced in St Andrews.

The manuscript includes incipits for lessons and prayers, and also includes full texts of some prayers.

The musical notation, which has been added in the margins, includes incipits and psalm tones for the antiphons, as well as complete invitatory antiphons. It omits any music for the responsories. The notation of the incipits may serve as an important guide in cases where the extent of the intonation of the antiphon is not clear in the principal sources. Indeed, the incipits and psalm tones may be considered a ‘complete’ tonary. Notably, this manuscript contains the chant texts for the feast of St. Thomas the martyr, but no musical notation.

The following are folio numbers
-1r: Temporale
-104v: Sanctorale
-185r: Commune sanctorum
-200r: Commendation animarum
-200v: end.

Antiphonale Sarisburiense (ed W. H. Frere) ‘AS’
this facsimile is a composite of several sources.
-101- This is the main souce, the so-called ‘Barnwell Antiphoner’. It begins with compline of ‘Domine ne in ira’, the season after the Octave of the Epiphany, all of the preceding part being lost.

National Library of Wales MS. 20541 E: the ‘Penpont Antiphonal’ ed. Owain Tudor Edwards, Ottawa: The Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1997. ‘PEN’
It would appear that the Psalter section was originally separate from the Temporale, seeing that there are numerous variants in the antiphon melodies.
1-: Temporale–beginning with the antiphon on the psalms at compline on the eve of the Nativity–the first part of the book is missing.
2v-3r: a lacuna from Nativity matins ant. 4 to nat. 9, presumably one leaf.
-Between 56v and 57r there is a lacuna of one leaf, from the first ferial responsory of Septuagesima to the antiphon at sext on Septuagesima
75v-76r: a lacuna from the end of Feria 3, second week of Lent to responsory, first vespers of Lent 3.
78v-79r: a lacuna from the first ferial responsory of Lent 3 to the end of none on Passion Sunday, an omission of two weeks.
86v-87r: a lacuna from ant. 4 of lauds, Wednesday of holy week to resp. 2 of Maundy Thursday, presumably 1 leaf.
-Between 157v and 158r there is a lacuna–from the seventh responsory of the feast of the Dedication to Ps. 88:12 (Friday) of the Psalter.
-Between 169v and 170r there is a lacuna–from the third psalm of Wednesday at vespers to the third psalm of Friday at vespers.
-Between 188v and 189r there is a lacuna–from the fifth responsory of the feast of Fabian and Sebastian to the ninth responsory of the feast of St. Agnes.
-Between 201v and 202r there is a lacuna–from the end of second vespers of the Purification to the fifth responsory at matins of St. Agatha.
-Between 208v and 209r there is a lacuna–from the end of the commemoration of St. David to the second antiphon at matins of the Annunciation.
-Between 209v and 210r there is a lacuna–from the sixth responsory of the Annunciation to matins of the feast of Sts. Philip and James.
-Between 219v and 220r there is a lacuna–from the Magnificat antiphon at first vespers of Sts. Peter and Paul to the second nocturn of matins of Sts. Peter and Paul.
-Between 234v and 235r there is a lacuna–from the third responsory of the Invention of St. Stephen to the feast of St. Ciriaci.
-Between 270v and 271r there is a lacuna–from the antiphon on the Magnificat at first vespers of St. Dionysius to the first antiphon of lauds of the same feast.
-it is apparent that the lacunae are caused mainly by the removal of leaves that contained significant art-work.

Antiphonale Sarisburiense
Christ Church, University of Oxford: Christ Church Arch. Inf. Subt. K.1.  Sarum Antiphonale, Pars Hiemalis (1519).  The ‘Winter’ half of the printed Sarum breviary.

A copy of the ‘Summer half’, 1520, is in Liverpool, Hope University Library, B66.


Manchester, Rylands-24 ‘Rylands-24’
This manuscript is generally very reliable in terms of the indication of B-flat.

To convert from leaf number into page number: multiply by 2 and add 5 for the recto, 6 for the verso. example: 20r = 45
to convert from page number into leaf number: subtract 5 for the recto, 6 for the verso, and divide by 2. example: 50 (verso) = 22v

The following are page numbers
-5: Prayers, in a later hand
-9: Kalendar
-21: Kyriale
-34: Asperges
-37: Advent
-53: Nativity
-75: Septuagesima
-84: Lent
-143: Passion Sunday
-157: Palm Sunday
-181: Maundy Thursday
-209: Easter
-235: Ascension
-241: Pentecost
-287: Dedication
-291: Ordinary of the mass
-295: Credo
-303: . . . series of full page illustrations
-311: Canon
-319: Sanctorale
-329: Purification
-365: Assumption
-371: Nativity of the Virgin
-391: Common of saints
-429: Votive masses
-455: Requiem mass
-473: Sequences (including approximately 27 that are not a regular part of the Sarum missal)


Cam-Queens-MS-28. Sarum Gradual.
This gradual also contains a good deal of processional material. This source also contains all of the offertory verses and all of the usual sequences.
-7 Blessing of Salt and Water
-10 Procession, First Sunday in Advent
-14 Credo in unum Deum
-35 Nativity, first mass
-43 Nativity, third mass
-55-56 This leaf, containing the mass for St. Thomas Becket, is a replacement in a later hand for one that was removed.
-191 Easter day
-234: Ascension Day
-243: Pentecost
-261: Trinity
-266: Corpus Christi
-309-310 is a replacement leaf
-320: Dedication
-331: Sanctorale: St. Andrew
-346: Purification
-365: Marginal note indicating the Feast of the Visitation
-369: Marginal note indicating the Feast of the Transfiguration
-373-374 is a replacement leaf
-408: a note: St. Wenefrede in fine libri
-415: Common of saints
-476: Daily mass of the Virgin
-492: Requiem mass
-496: Kyriale
-523-532 are replacement leaves (this scribe seems unable to write the ascending liquescent.)
-528: Feast of the Visitation
-533: Transfiguration
-536: The Name of Jesus
-540: final page with text and music

Petre’s Gradual
-Sir William Petre, d. 1560; his son, the first Lord Petre, was
-Front-matter-1-4: 19th c. English introduction–this may be the original of the article printed in the Downside Review IV (1885):158-167.

To convert from leaf number into page number: multiply by 2 and add 15 for the recto, 16 for the verso. example: 40r = 95
to convert from page number into leaf number: subtract 15 for the recto, 16 for the verso, and divide by 2. example: 60 (verso) = 22v

Bar-lines within the opening phrases of sequences appear to indicate the point at which the choir joins in with the leader.

The following are folio numbers
-1r (17): the Ms begins in the middle of the sequence for the first Sunday in Advent.
-13r (41): Third mass of Christmas
-26v (58): Epiphany
-62r (139): Easter
-76v (168): Ascension
-79r (173): Pentecost
-85v (186): Trinity
-111r (237): Sanctorale
-142: Wenefrede added in the margin
-145r: Common of saints
-167r: Mass of the Virgin
-170r: Requiem mass
-173r: Kyriale
-183r: supplementary sequences: 1) Deum unum adoremus, 2) Trinitatis in laude, 3) Gaudeamus omnes in Domino, 4) Summe regis in honore, 5) Magne lucem claritatis
-185r-186v: miscellaneous material not connected directly with the main text.


The base-source for the edition of the Processionale is the 1519 Paris quarto edition by Bryckman, using the copy in the Bodleian library (Gough Missals 75) as reproduced in EEBO.

Ordinals and Directories

Oxford Corpus Christi MS 44
Sarum Ordinal, late 14 c.
-f1: Ordinal of Breviarium
-f124v: Ordinal of Missale
-f166: Ordinal of Manuale
-f172: Customary
-F194: Tonale

Sarum Cathedral Library, MS 175
Ordinal, late 14th c.
-f2: Kalendar
-f7: Ordinal of Breviarium, Temporale
-f74v: Customary
-f92: Ordinal of Breviarium, Sanctorale
-f136: Ordinal of Missale
-f189: Ordinal of Manuale
-f195v: Directory of music and Tonale

British Library Ms Arundel 130
Sarum Ordinal, 15th c.
-f1: Ordinal of Breviarium
-f59v: Customary
-f65v: Ordinal of Missale
-f89: Ordinal of Manuale
-f103: Tonale

Ordinale Sarum 1503 (British Library copy)

In the EEBO pdf 2 leaves are out of order:
-after 84 left side should appear 85 right and 86 left;
-after 90 left side should appear 91 right side.
-after 92 left side one leaf (two pages) is missing.