Sources

This page will provide descriptions and commentary on the sources used in this project.

Breviaries

British Library Add MS 52359, the Penwortham Breviary
Noted Breviary, early 14th c.
-1r: Temporale
-233r: Kalendar
-283r: Psalter
-285r: Sanctorale
-466r (with 357-372): Commune sanctorum
-368r: Venitare
-489r: Canticles
-490v: this section is in a different, later hand.
-493r: additions, including St. Edward, King, St. Hugh, St. Anianus, St. Christina

This breviary exhibits here and there some curtailment of melismas–a modest simplification of melodies–as compared to the other Sarum sources. A good example is the responsory Iste cognovit justiciam (Common of One Martyr), f472r. In many instance there is no indication of the V. Gloria Patri. or the subsequent repetenda in the final responsories of nocturns. Although this is essentially a Sarum breviary, it is not purely Sarum. For example, the sentence that closes the matins readings at the Nativity includes the phrase ‘qui hodierna die de Virgine nasci dignatus es’, which belongs to the Use of York. Further, the chants exhibit several special characteristics: in the responsories ‘regular’ phrase-endings often occur where ‘deceptive’ or ‘varied’ endings occur in the usual Sarum sources; in addition, the range of some chants is curtailed, omitting to empoly the low ‘Gamma’ in mode II, for example.
There is occasional inaccuracy in the vertical placement of the pitches on the staff lines.

GB-En Adv.18.2.13B The Sprouston Breviary.
‘A late thirteenth-century Sarum breviary with musical notation. It contains offices for St Kentigern, fols 35v–38v, and St Thomas Becket, fols 20v–33r, and a double invocation of Kentigern in the litany. In the calendar there are entries written in a later hand for three church
dedications, one of which is of a church at Sprouston. The breviary was thus probably used in the diocese of Glasgow.’ Stephen Mark Holmes, ‘Catalogue of liturgical books and fragments
in Scotland before 1560’, The Innes Review 62.2 (2011): 145.

GB-Eu 26. Edinburgh Breviary.
‘Early fourteenth-century illuminated English Sarum breviary, possibly from the diocese of Chichester. The late addition of a collect for St Moluag suggests that it came to Scotland.’ Stephen Mark Holmes, ‘Catalogue of liturgical books and fragments in Scotland before 1560’, The Innes Review 62.2 (2011): 146.

GB-Eu 27. Aberdeen Cathedral Breviary.
‘Early fourteenth-century English noted and illuminated Sarum breviary, which probably came to the diocese of Aberdeen in the fourteenth or early fifteenth century. It includes a Scottish chronicle and obits, and additions to the calendar include: SS Colman (19 February); Monan
(1 March); Adrian (4 March); Baldred (6 March); Duthac (8 March); Kessog (10 March); Constantine (11 March); Boniface (16 March); Olaf (30 March); Regulus (31 March); Andrew, translation (9 May); Columba (9 June); Duthac (26 June); Ninian (16 September); dedication
of Aberdeen cathedral (3 November); Machar (12 November); and Margaret, translation (16 November). The text of the office of St Kentigern is written on blank folios at the end in a fifteenth century hand. Stephen Mark Holmes, ‘Catalogue of liturgical books and fragments in Scotland before 1560’, The Innes Review 62.2 (2011): 146.

Salisbury Cathedral Library Ms. 224 (Formerly Bodleian Library, MS e Musaeo 2, transferred 1985)
Breviarium ad usum Sarum cum notis, late 14th c. Originally from Great Bedwyn Church
1-516: Temporale
-517-528: Kalendar
-530-532: list of saints for days in lent
-535-634: Psalter
-635-986: Sanctorale
-999-1005: Venitare
-1006 ff: Benedictions

Breviarium Venice, Reynaldum de Novimagio, 1483, octavo (STC-15795-517)
The pdf of this earliest reasonably complete printed Sarum breviary (available through EEBO) is often difficult to read. This breviary is important because it provides shorter lessons at matins.

Antiphonals

Bibliotheque National Ms Latin 12036. (early 13th. c.) St Andrews Antiphonal and Diurnal.
Basically Sarum but with some unusual sanctoral items, palaeographically linked with
the De Bernham Pontifical, probably produced in St Andrews.

The manuscript includes incipits for lessons and prayers, and also includes full texts of some prayers.

The musical notation, which has been added in the margins, includes incipits and psalm tones for the antiphons, as well as complete invitatory antiphons. It omits any music for the responsories. The notation of the incipits may serve as an important guide in cases where the extent of the intonation of the antiphon is not clear in the principal sources. Indeed, the incipits and psalm tones may be considered a ‘complete’ tonary. Notably, this manuscript contains the chant texts for the feast of St. Thomas the martyr, but no musical notation.

The following are folio numbers
-1r: Temporale
-104v: Sanctorale
-185r: Commune sanctorum
-200r: Commendation animarum
-200v: end.

Antiphonale Sarisubirense (ed W. H. Frere)
this facsimile is a composite of several sources.
-1-96:
-101- This is the main rouse, the so-called ‘Barnwell Antiphoner’. It begins with compline of ‘Domine ne in ira’, the season after the Octave of the Epiphany, all of the preceding part being lost.

National Library of Wales MS. 20541 E: the ‘Penpont Antiphonal’ ed. Owain Tudor Edwards, Ottawa: The Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1997.
It would appear that the Psalter section was originally separate from the Temporale, seeing that there are numerous variants in the antiphon melodies.
1-: Temporale–beginning with the antiphon on the psalms at compline on the eve of the Nativity–the first part of the book is missing.
2v-3r: a lacuna from Nativity matins ant. 4 to nat. 9, presumably one leaf.
-Between 56v and 57r there is a lacuna of one leaf, from the first ferial responsory of Septuagesima to the antiphon at sext on Septuagesima
75v-76r: a lacuna from the end of Feria 3, second week of Lent to responsory, first vespers of Lent 3.
78v-79r: a lacuna from the first ferial responsory of Lent 3 to the end of none on Passion Sunday, an omission of two weeks.
86v-87r: a lacuna from ant. 4 of lauds, Wednesday of holy week to resp. 2 of Maundy Thursday, presumably 1 leaf.
-Between 169v and 170r there is a lacuna.

Missals

Manchester, Rylands-24
This manuscript is generally very reliable in terms of the indication of B-flat.

To convert from leaf number into page number: multiply by 2 and add 5 for the recto, 6 for the verso. example: 20r = 45
to convert from page number into leaf number: subtract 5 for the recto, 6 for the verso, and divide by 2. example: 50 (verso) = 22v

The following are page numbers
-5: Prayers, in a later hand
-9: Kalendar
-21: Kyriale
-34: Asperges
-37: Advent
-53: Nativity
-75: Septuagesima
-84: Lent
-143: Passion Sunday
-157: Palm Sunday
-181: Maundy Thursday
-209: Easter
-235: Ascension
-241: Pentecost
-287: Dedication
-291: Ordinary of the mass
-295: Credo
-303: . . . series of full page illustrations
-311: Canon
-319: Sanctorale
-329: Purification
-365: Assumption
-371: Nativity of the Virgin
-391: Common of saints
-429: Votive masses
-455: Requiem mass
-473: Sequences (including approximately 27 that are not a regular part of the Sarum missal)

Graduals

Cam-Queens-MS-28. Sarum Gradual.
This gradual also contains a good deal of processional material. This source also contains all of the offertory verses and all of the usual sequences.
-7 Blessing of Salt and Water
-10 Procession, First Sunday in Advent
-14 Credo in unum Deum
-35 Nativity, first mass
-43 Nativity, third mass
-55-56 This leaf, containing the mass for St. Thomas Becket, is a replacement in a later hand for one that was removed.
-191 Easter day
-234: Ascension Day
-243: Pentecost
-261: Trinity
-266: Corpus Christi
-309-310 is a replacement leaf
-320: Dedication
-331: Sanctorale: St. Andrew
-346: Purification
-365: Marginal note indicating the Feast of the Visitation
-369: Marginal note indicating the Feast of the Transfiguration
-373-374 is a replacement leaf
-408: a note: St. Wenefrede in fine libri
-415: Common of saints
-476: Daily mass of the Virgin
-492: Requiem mass
-496: Kyriale
-523-532 are replacement leaves (this scribe seems unable to write the ascending liquescent.)
-528: Feast of the Visitation
-533: Transfiguration
-536: The Name of Jesus
-540: final page with text and music

Petre’s Gradual
-Sir William Petre, d. 1560; his son, the first Lord Petre, was
-Front-matter-1-4: 19th c. English introduction–this may be the original of the article printed in the Downside Review IV (1885):158-167.

To convert from leaf number into page number: multiply by 2 and add 15 for the recto, 16 for the verso. example: 40r = 95
to convert from page number into leaf number: subtract 15 for the recto, 16 for the verso, and divide by 2. example: 60 (verso) = 22v

Bar-lines within the opening phrases of sequences appear to indicate the point at which the choir joins in with the leader.

The following are folio numbers
-1r (17): the Ms begins in the middle of the sequence for the first Sunday in Advent.
-13r (41): Third mass of Christmas
-26v (58): Epiphany
-62r (139): Easter
-76v (168): Ascension
-79r (173): Pentecost
-85v (186): Trinity
-111r (237): Sanctorale
-142: Wenefrede added in the margin
-145r: Common of saints
-167r: Mass of the Virgin
-170r: Requiem mass
-173r: Kyriale
-183r: supplementary sequences: 1) Deum unum adoremus, 2) Trinitatis in laude, 3) Gaudeamus omnes in Domino, 4) Summe regis in honore, 5) Magne lucem claritatis
-185r-186v: miscellaneous material not connected directly with the main text.

Processionals

The base-source for the edition of the Processionale is the 1519 Paris quarto edition by Bryckman, using the copy in the Bodleian library (Gough Missals 75) as reproduced in EEBO.

Ordinals and Directories

Oxford Corpus Christi MS 44
Sarum Ordinal, late 14 c.
-f1: Ordinal of Breviarium
-f124v: Ordinal of Missale
-f166: Ordinal of Manuale
-f172: Customary
-F194: Tonale

Sarum Cathedral Library, MS 175
Ordinal, late 14th c.
-f2: Kalendar
-f7: Ordinal of Breviarium, Temporale
-f74v: Customary
-f92: Ordinal of Breviarium, Sanctorale
-f136: Ordinal of Missale
-f189: Ordinal of Manuale
-f195v: Directory of music and Tonale

British Library Ms Arundel 130
Sarum Ordinal, 15th c.
-f1: Ordinal of Breviarium
-f59v: Customary
-f65v: Ordinal of Missale
-f89: Ordinal of Manuale
-f103: Tonale

Ordinale Sarum 1503 (British Library copy)

In the EEBO pdf 2 leaves are out of order:
-after 84 left side should appear 85 right and 86 left;
-after 90 left side should appear 91 right side.
-after 92 left side one leaf (two pages) is missing.