The bibliography is organized into categories. Sources freely available on the internet are identified with §.
2. Original Sarum Printed Books
5. Editions of Sarum Material in Latin
6. Editions of Sarum Material in English
8. Other Chant and Liturgy Sources
1. Original Sarum Manuscripts
British Museum, MS. Add. 12194. (Gradual, available in facsimile, see below.)
British Museum, MS. Add. 17001. (Gradual, partly available in facsimile, see below.)
British Museum, MS. Add. 52359. the ‘Penwortham Breviary’ (Noted Breviary.)
This source is less reliable for musical notation than AS (Cambridge MM ii. 9) or 1519-1520. It is not simply a question of accuracy, however, for there are numerous variations that are by no means simple scribal errors or minor details of pitch.
British Library Cotton MS Tiberius C 1 ff 43r-203v contains a pontifical including an added portion (ff 89r (88r?)-151r) from the 11th century written at Sherbourne and Salisbury.
British Museum, Lansd. 462. (partly available in facsimile, see below.)
Cambridge, University Library, Mm. ii. 9. the ‘Barnwell Antiphonal’. (available in facsimile, see below.)
National Library of Wales MS. 20541 E: the ‘Penpont Antiphonal’. (available in facsimile, see below.)
Manchester, Rylands Library, Medieval Collection, Latin MS 24. Sarum [Noted] Missal, 13th. c. (the Crawford Missal)
Newcastle University ROB 405. Petre’s Gradual. Described in The Downside Review IV (1885):158-167. ‘Rediscovered’ in 2014. This is one of the few manuscript graduals that includes the offertory verses. (In the internet files, each individual file is numbered with the previous page number! In references, I follow the convention that recto is numbered odd.)
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Bodley 948. (partly available in facsimile, see below.)
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Rawl. Liturg. d 3. (partly available in facsimile, see below.)
Salisbury, Chapter LIbrary, MS. 148. Processional (15th c.) (edited by C. Wordsworth, see below; available in facsimile, see below.)
Sarum, Chapter Library, MS. 152. the ‘Erlyingham Breviary’. (partly available in facsimile, see below.)
2. Original Sarum Printed Books (available through Early English Books Online)
Antiphonale Sarisburiense. Paris: Byrckman, 1519 (pars hyemalis); 1520 (pars estivalis). STC-15790 (1519-Christ Church, Oxford, 1520-British Museum)
Breviarium Sarisburiense. Paris: Bryckman, 1516. STC-15812 (Bodleian)
Breviarium Sarisburiense. Cologne: Chevallon, 1531. STC-15830 (British Library)
Graduale ad consuetudinem Sarum. Paris: Hopyl, 1508. STC-15862 (Huntington Library)
Hymnorum cum notis. Antwerp: Bryckman, 1525. STC-16131 (British Library)
Missale ad consuetudinem ecclesie Sarum. Paris: Rembolt, 1513. STC-16191 (British Library)
3. Sarum Facsimiles
Edwards, Owain Tudor, ed. National Library of Wales MS. 20541 E: The Penpont Antiphonal. Ottawa: The Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1997.
Frere, Walter Howard, ed. Antiphonale Sarisburiense. London: Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society, 1901-24. (contains Cambridge, University Library, Mm. ii. 9.; part of Sarum, Chapter Library, MS. 152; part of Bodley, MS, Bodley 948; and a small number of pages from the printed Antiphonale, 1519-1520.)
Frere, Walter Howard, ed. Graduale Sarisburiense. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1894. (British Museum MS. Add. 12194, part of British Museum MS. Add. 17001; part of British Museum Lansd. 462; and part of Bodleian MS. Rawl. liturg. d 3. ).
Lack, Alistair, ed. Processions and other Late Medieval Ceremonies of Salisbury Cathedral, private publication, 2015. (Salisbury Cathedral MS 148).
4. Non-Sarum facsimiles
[Monks of Solesmes, ed.] Le Codex F. 160 de la bibliothèque de la cathédrale de Worcester. Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1922.
Sodi, Manlio, and Achille Maria Triacca, eds. Breviarium Romanum. Editio Princeps. (1568). Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1999.
5. Editions of Sarum Material in Latin
Collins, Arthur Jeffries. Manuale ad usum percelebris ecclesie Sariburiensis. London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1960.
Dayman, Edward A., and W. H. Rich Jones, Statuta et consuetudines ecclesiae cathedralis Sarisberiensis (Statutes of the Cathedral Church of Sarum), Bath: William Lewis & Son, 1883.
Dickinson, Francis H., ed. Missale ad usum insignis et praeclarae ecclesiae Sarum. Burntisland: Pitslago, 1861-1883.
Frere, Walter Howard, ed. Hymn Melodies for the Whole Year. (1896) Fifth Edition. Wantage: Saint Mary’s Press, 1952. This book also appears under the title Plainsong Hymn Melodies and Sequences, published in limited edition by The Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society, 1895 or later.
Frere, Walter Howard, ed. The Use of Sarum. 2 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1898, 1901. § Volume 1. Volume 2.
Harper, John Harper with Sally Harper and Matthew Cheung Salisbury. Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary According to the Use of Salisbury. 2 vols. London: Stainer and Bell, 2019. Free open access edition available here.
Henderson, William George, ed. Manuale et processionale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis. (Surtees Society) Durham: Andrews & Co. 1875. The Appendix contains portions of the Sarum Manuale.
Henderson, William George, ed. Processionale ad usum insignis ac praeclarae ecclesiae Sarum. Leeds: M’Corquodale, 1882. §
Hymnale secundum usum insignis ac praeclarae ecclesie Sarisburiensis. Littlemore: Alex A. Masson, 1850.
Hymnarium Sarisburiense cum Rubris et Notis Musicis. Pars prima. London: G. Barclay, 1851.
Jones, W. H. Rich. Vetus registrum Sarisberiense Vol I: S. Osmundi consuetudinarium &c. London: Longman & Co, 1883. §
Jones, W. H. Rich. Vetus registrum Sarisberiense Vol II: Historia translationis veteris ecclesiae beatae Mariae Sarum ad novam &c. London: Longman & Co, 1884. §
Legg, J. Wickham, ed. The Sarum Missal edited from Three Early Manuscripts. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1916. §
Legg, J. Wickham, ed. Tracts on the Mass. London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1904. Containing Sarum Ordinary of the Fourteenth Century; Sarum Ordinary of the Thirteenth Century. §
Marrocco, Thomas, and Nicholas Sandon. The Oxford Anthology of Medieval Music. London: Oxford University Press, 1977. pp. 22-25 contain the Procession before Mass on Easter Day; pp. 28-45 contain the Mass for Easter Day.
Maskell, William. Monumenta ritualia ecclesiae Anglicanae. First Edition, London:Pickering, 1846; Second Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1882. §
Newman, John Henry. Hymnus ecclesiae. London: Macmillan, 1865. §
Procter, Francis, and Christopher Wordsworth, eds. Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesiae Sarum. 3 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1879, 1882, 1886. §
Renwick, William, ed. Sarum Compline Latin. Hamilton Ontario: Gregorian Institute of Canada, 2018, second edition, 2020.
Renwick, William, ed. Sarum Diurnal Latin (3 vols.) Hamilton Ontario: Gregorian Institute of Canada, 2020.
Renwick, William, ed. Sarum Gradual Latin (3 vols.) Hamilton Ontario: Gregorian Institute of Canada, 2021.
Renwick, William, ed. Sarum Vespers Latin (3 vols.) Hamilton Ontario: Gregorian Institute of Canada, 2019.
Sandon, Nick. ed. The Use of Salisbury. 6 vols. Newton Abbot, Devon: Antico Edition, 1984-1999. A Latin performing edition of the Mass of the Sarum Temporale with English rubrics.
Seager, Charles. Portiforii seu Breviarii Sarisburiensis. Vol. 1. London: J. Leslie, 1842; Vols. 1-2, 1843. §
Todd, James. H. ed. “The Ancient Antiphonary of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin: The Consuetudinary of St. Osmund” The British Magazine and Monthly Register XXX (1846):509-518; 652-659; XXXI (1847):22-33; 161-167; 260-267; 404-411 XXXII. §
Wordsworth, Christopher, ed. Ceremonies and Processions of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury. Cambridge: at the University Press, 1901.
Wordsworth, Christopher, ed. Ordinale Sarum sive Directorium Sacerdotum. 2 vols. London:Harrison and Sons, 1901-1902. (HBS XX, XXII.) §
Wordsworth, Christopher, and Douglas Macleane, eds. Statutes and Customs of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Salisbury. London: William Clowes and Sons, 1915. (also contains English translations and commentary) This volume contains the ‘statutes’. A second volume, intended to contain the ‘customs’, appears never to have been published.
Wordsworth, Christopher, ed. The Tracts of Clement Maydeston with the Remains of Caxton’s Ordinale. London: Harrison and Sons, 1894. (HBS VII.) §
6. Editions of Sarum Material in English
Baker, H. W. ed. Historical Companion to Hymns Ancient and Modern. London: Willam Clowes and Sons, 1909.
[Neale, J. M.] Breviary Offices from Lauds to Compline. London: J.T. Hayes, 1874; Reprinted New York: J. Pott & Co., 1885.
Bridges, Robert, and H. Ellis Wooldridge. The Yattendon Hymnal. London: Oxford University Press, 1899.
Briggs, H. W. and W. H. Frere. A Manual of Plainsong. New Edition. London: Novello & Co. 1902. § A revision of Helmore 1850.
Burgess, Francis. Additional Psalms for Evening Services. London: Novello & Company, 1920.
Burgess, Francis. The English Gradual: Part I. The Plainchant of the Ordinary. 6th Edition. London: Plainchant Publications Committee, 1955.
Burgess, Francis. The Ritual Music of the Prefaces . . . with Sarum Note. London: Plainchant Publications Committee, no date.
[Anon.] Certain Services of the Church of Sarum: translated with notes. [England]: [s. n.], [186-?]. (Nineteenth Century Collections Online.) (This work is missing its title page.) This work appears also in The Ecclesiastic XXIX (1867):271-284, 314-328, 368-378. §
Chambers, John David. An Order of Household Devotion for a Week, with Variations for the Seasons and Festivals, from the Ancient English of Sarum Use (London: 1854)
[Chambers, John David.] The Encheiridion, or Daily Hours of Private Devotion. London: Lumley, 1860. §
Chambers, John David. The Psalter, or Seven ordinary Hours of Prayer. London: Joseph Masters, 1852. §
Chandler, John. The Hymns of the Primitive Church. London: John W. Parker, 1837. §
Cobb, Cyril S. The Rationale of Ceremonial 1540-1543. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1910. §
Copeland, William John. Hymns for the Week, and Hymns for the Seasons. London: W. J. Cleaver, 1848.
[Ligon, Francis} The Day-Hours of the Church of England. London: Joseph Masters, 1858.
Dearmer, Percy, ed. The English Hymnal. New Edition. London: Oxford University Press, 1933. §
[Frere, W. H.] Prime and Hours according to the Use of the Church of England. London: Mowbray, 1909. §
Helmore, Thomas. Accompanying Harmonies to the Hymnal Noted. London: Novello, Ewer and Co. 1852. §
Helmore, Thomas. A Manual of Plainsong. London: Novello, Ewer & Co. 1850. §
The Lesser Hours of the Sarum Breviary. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1889. §
Ligon, Francis (Earl of Beauchamp). The Day Hours of the Church of England. Rev. Ed. London: Joseph Masters and Co., 1877. § (A review of the first edition appears in The Ecclesiologist XIX (1868) 332-334. §)
Littlehales, Henry, ed. The Prymer, or Lay Folks’ Prayer Book. London: Kegan Paul, (2 parts) 1895-97. §
Maskell, William. The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England. London: William Pickering, 1846. §
McDougall, Alan G. Pange Lingua-Breviary Hymns of Old Uses. London: Burns & Oates, 1916. §
Monk, W. H. Hymns Ancient and Modern. London: William Clower and Sons, Limited, 1861.
Neale, John Mason. Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences. (First edition, 1852). Third edition. London: Joseph Masters, 1867. §
Neale, John Mason. The Hymnal Noted, Parts 1 and 2. London: Novello, Ewer and Co, 1851.
Neale, John Mason, et al. The Night Hours of the Church. Three Vols. London:J.T. Hayes, 1877.; Second Edition. London: Ellis & Keene, 1899.
The New Office Hymn Book. Part 1. the Sequences, with Music. London, Novello and Company, 1908.
Nicholson, Sydney H. A Plainsong Hymnbook. London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1932.
Oldknow, Joseph, and Augustine David Crake. The Priest’s Book of Private Devotion. Oxfor & London: Mowbray, 1884. §
The Order for Holy Saturday. London: the Church Union, n.d.
The Order of Complin. London: Pickering and Co., 1881.
Palmer, George Herbert. The Antiphons upon Magnificat & Nunc dimittis. Wantage: S. MAry’s Convent, 1930. §
Palmer, George Hebert. The Diurnal after the Use of the illustrious Church of Salisbury. Wantage: S. Mary’s Convent, 1921.
This volume has a much altered Sanctorale, with considerable deletions and additions–hence “from the Salisbury Use”.
Palmer, George Hebert. The Diurnal [Noted] after the Use of the illustrious Church of Salisbury. (Noted) Wantage: S. Mary’s Convent, 1926.
This volume has a much altered Sanctorale, with considerable deletions and additions–hence “from the Salisbury Use”.
Palmer, George Herbert. The Hymner. London: Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, 1905.
Palmer, George Herbert. The Offices, or Introits . . . from the Sarum Graduale. . Third Edition. Wantage: St. Mary’s Convent, 1962.
Palmer, George Herbert, and Walter Howard Frere. The Order of Compline. (First Edition 1899.) Wantage: St. Mary’s Convent, 1940. As noted in the Preface, the second edition includes only the Roman Use.
Palmer, George Herbert. The Order of Tenebrae.  Corrected Edition. Wantage: S. Mary’s Convent, 1956.
Palmer, George Herbert. The Order of Vespers. New Edition. Wantage: S. Mary’s Press, 1968.
This volume has a much altered Sanctorale, with considerable deletions and additions–hence “from the Salisbury Use”.
Palmer, George Herbert, and Francis Burgess. The Plainchant Gradual. (4 parts in 2 vols.) (1946; 1952) Second Edition (revised). Wantage: S. Mary’s Press, 1965
Palmer, George Herbert. The Sarum Psalter (The Psalms & Canticles at Matins & Evensong) New Edition. Wantage: S. Mary’s Convent, 1963.
Pearson, A Harford. The Sarum Missal done into English. London: The Church Printing Company, 1884.
Pearson, Charles Buchanan. Sequences from the Sarum Missal. London: Bell and Daldy, 1871. §
The Plainchant of the Ordinary of the Mass. 10th Edition. London: Plainsong & Medieval Music Society, 1937.
Procter, F, and E.S. Deswick, eds. The Martiloge in Englysshe. London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1893.
Purchas, John. Cautels of the Mass, translated from the Sarum Missal. London:Joseph Masters, 1858.
Renwick, William, ed. Sarum Compline: BCP English. Hamilton Ontario: Gregorian Institute of Canada, 2018, second edition, 2020.
Renwick, William, ed. Sarum Compline: D-R English. Hamilton Ontario: Gregorian Institute of Canada, 2018, second edition, 2020.
Riley, Athelstan, A Prymer for the Laity, set forth after the Antient Prymers of Salisbury Use. London: A. R. Mowbray and Co., 1878. §
[Sisters of S. Margaret.] The Saint Margaret Antiphoner. Wantage: St. Mary’s Convent, 1955.
Warren, Frederick E. The Sarum Missal in English. 2 vols. London Alexander Moring Ltd., 1911. Part 1. Part 2. §
Wilkinson, Peter, ed. Ancient Office Hymn Book. Revised Edition. Victoria B.C.: The Anglican Catholic Church of Canada, 2005.
Willan, Healey. The Canadian Psalter, Plainsong Edition. Toronto: The Anglican Church of Canada, 1963. This work is based on that of Helmore, Briggs and Frere.
7. Commentaries and Studies
—–. ‘Lord Petre’s “Gradale“‘, The Downside Review IV (1885): 158-167. §.
Airaksinen, Katja. ‘The Morton Missal: the finest incunable made in England’, Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, XIV-2 (2009): 147-179. §.
Allenson, Stephen. ‘The Inverness Fragments: Music from a Pre-reformation Scottish Parish and School’, Music and Letters LXX-1 (1989):1-45.
Ardrey-Graves, Mark Wayland. ‘More Divine than Human’: Early Tudor Plainchant and Polyphony of the Lenten Compline Office in the Use of Salisbury, 1485-1558′. DMA Dissertation, James Madison University, 2015. §
Atchley, E. G. Cuthbert F. ‘Jesus Mass and Anthem.’ Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society V (1905): 163-169. §
—–. ‘Notes on a Sarum Manuscript Missal in the Bristol Museum.’ Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society IV (1900): 293-296. §
Baden Powell, James. ‘English Liturgical Colours’ Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society I: 1881: 89-94. §
Bailey, Terence. ‘Accentual and Cursive Cadences in Gregorian Psalmody’. Journal of the American Musicological Society, XXIX-3 (Autumn, 1976): 463-471.
Bailey, Terence. The Processions of Sarum and the Western Church. Toronto: Pontifical institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1971.
Baugh, Albert C. ‘Osbert of St. Clare. ‘The Sarum Breviary, and the Middle-English Saint Anne in Rime Royal’. Speculum VII-1 (1932):106-113.
Baxter, Philip. Sarum Use: The Ancient Customs of Salisbury. Reading: Spire Books, 2008.
Bedingfield, Marvin Bradford. ‘Dramatic Ritual and Preaching in Late Anglo-Saxon England.’ D. Phil. diss. University of Oxford, 1999.
Bergh, F.T. (1912). ‘Sarum Rite’. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved August 1, 2017 from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13479a.htm
Billett, Jesse D. The Divine Office in Anglo-Saxon England 597-c. 1000. London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 2014.
Includes transcriptions of Anglo-Saxon liturgical documents: London BL Royal 17. C. XVII. fols 2, 3, 163-6; Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawl. D. 894, fols. 62-63; London, BL, Burney 277, fols. 69-72, and Stowe 1061, fol. 25.
Bishop, Edmund. Liturgia Historica. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1918. (In particular, Chapter 12: “Holy Week Rites of Sarum, Hereford and Rouen Compared.”, pp. 276-300.)
Blunt, John Henry, ed. The Annotated Book of Common Prayer. Revised and enlarged edition. London: Rivingtons, 1885. §
Blunt, John Henry, ed. The Myroure of oure Ladye. London: Early English Text Society, 1873. §
Bowers, Roger. ‘Choral Institutions Within the English Church: Their Constitution and Development 1340-1500‘. Ph.D. diss. University of East Anglia, 1975.
Bridgett, T. E. History of the Holy Eucharist in Great Britain, Vol II. London: C. Kegan Paul & Co., 1881.
Brightman, Frank Edward. The English Rite: Being a Synopsis of the Sources and Revisions of the Book of Common Prayer. 2 vols. London: Rivingtons, 1915.
Britt, Matthew. The Hymns of the Breviary and Missal. London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne Ltd. 1925.
Britton, John. The History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury. London: Longman, 1814.
Brownlow, William Robert. ‘Notes on a Ms. Copy of the Sarum Missal’, The Downside Review XIII (July 1894): 129-144. § That the first of the votive masses in this manuscript if for Sts. Peter and Paul (p. 134), suggests to me that this missal was made for the use of a church dedicated to those saints, such as Exeter Catherdral.
Buckley, Ann. ‘Insular Saints in Irish Sarum Kalendars of the Office’, Anne Buckley and lisa Colton, eds., Music and Liturgy in Medieval Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022: 122-173.
Cain, E. A. ‘English Chant Tradition in the Late Middle Ages : The Introits and Graduals of the Temporale of the Sarum Gradual”, PhD. diss., Harvard University, 1982.
Cobb, Cyril S., ed. The Rationale of Ceremonial 1540-1543. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1910.
Cocke, Thomas, and Peter Kidson. Salisbury Cathedral-Perspectives on the Architectural History: Perspectives on the Architectural History. London: Royal Commission on Historical Monuments of England, 1993.
Collations, Titles, Colophons and Descriptions of the Editions of the Sarum Breviary. n.d.
Chambers, John David. Divine Worship in England in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1877.
De-Mezerac-Zanetti, Aude. ‘Liturgical developments in England under Henri VIII(1534-1547)’, Durham theses, Durham University.
De-Mezerac-Zanetti, Aude. ‘Reforming the Liturgy under Henry VIII: The Instruction of John Clerk, Bishop of Bath and Wells’, The Journal or Ecclesiastical History LXIV (2013):96-111.
[Dickinson, Francis G.] A List of Printed Service Books According to the Ancient Uses of the Anglican Church. London: Joseph Masters, 1850.
Dodsworth, William. An Historical Account of the Episcopal See, and Cathedral Church, of Sarum, or Salisbury. Salisbury: Brodie and Dowding, 1814.
Droste, Diane. ‘The Musical Notation and Transmission of the Music of the Sarum Use, 1225-1500.’ Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1983.
Duff, Edward Gordon. Notes on the Sarum hymni cum notis, Antwerp, 1541. London: Chiswick Press, n.d.
Duffy, Eamon. Reformation Divided: Catholics, Protestants, and the Conversion of England. London: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2017.
Duffy, Eamon. The Stripping of the Altars. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Eden, B. L. ‘The Thirteenth-Century Sequence Repertory of the Sarum Use’, PhD diss., University of Kansas, 1991.
Edwards, Kathleen. The English Secular Cathedral in the Middle Ages. Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1949, R/1967.
Edwards, Kathleen. ‘The Cathedral Church of Salisbury’, A History of the County of Wiltshire III:153-210. London: Victoria County History, 1956. §
Edwards, Owain Tudor. Matins, Lauds, and Vespers for St. David’s Day: The Medieval Office of the Welsh Patron Saint in National Library of Wales MS 205412 E. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1990.
Feasey, Dom H. Philibert, ‘Palm Sundays‘ American Ecclesiastical Review 1908: 361-381.
Feasey, Henry John. Ancient English Holy Week Ceremonial. London: Thomas Baker, 1897.
Frere, Walter Howard. The Sarum Gradual and the Gregorian Antiphonale Missarum. (Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society.) London: Bernard Quaritch, 1895.
Frost, Christian. Time, Space, and Order: The Making of Medieval Salisbury. Bern: Peter Lang, 2009.
Frost, D. H. ‘Interpreting a medieval church through liturgy‘, proceedings, The Welsh Medieval Church in its Context, 2008.
Gameson, Richard. ‘Becket in Horae: The Commemoration of the Saint
in Private Prayer Books of the Later Middle Ages’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association CDXXIII (2020):1-31.
Glunz, H. H. History of the Vulgate in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1933. (Discusses text-variants, including references to Salisbury (pp. 184-186) and other locations.)
Gough, Richard. Catalogue of Sarum and York Missals. [London, 1780.] This British Library document lacks a title page. (A reprint of pp.319-363 of vol.2 of ‘British topography’ by Richard Gough, with renumbered footnotes and new pagination and register.)
Greenway, Diana E. ‘The false Institutio of St. Osmund’, in Greenway, Diana E., C. J. Holdsworth, and Jane E. Sayers. Tradition and change : essays in honour of Marjorie Chibnall presented by her friends on the occasion of her seventieth birthday. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Greenway, Diana E., ed. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 4, Salisbury. London: Institute of Historical Research, 1991.
Greenway, Diana. ‘Orders and Rank at Old Sarum’, The Ministry: Clerical and Lay, ed. W. J. Shiels and Diana Wood (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1989):55-64.
Halmo, Joan. ‘A Sarum antiphoner and other medieval office manuscripts from England and France: some musical relationships.’ PMM XI-2 (2002):113-126.
Harper, Sally. Music in Welsh Culture Before 1650: A Study of the Principal Sources. Routledge, 2017. Chapters 11, ‘Shaping a New Liturgy: The Adoption of Sarum Use in Wales’; 12: ‘Sources with Music I: The Penpont Antiphoner’; and 13: ‘Sources with Music II: The Bangor Antiphoner’ are of particular interest.
Harrison, Frank L. ‘Music for the Sarum Rite: MS 1236 in the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge’, Annales musicologiques VI (1958-63): 99-144.
Harrison, Frank L. Music in Medieval Britain. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1958.
Henderson, J. Frank. ‘Clergy, Nobility, Commoners, the Dead and Henry VIII’s Second Decree on Bidding Prayers (1536).’ 2003.
Henderson, J. Frank. ‘Henry VIII’s 1534 and 1536 Decrees on Bidding Prayers: Unintended Consequences.’ 2003.
Henderson, J. Frank. v.’“Historical” Dates in Medieval Liturgical Calendar.’ 2004
Henderson, J. Frank. ‘Liturgical Processions during the Reign of Queen Mary I: Documentation.’ 2004.
Henderson, J. Frank. ‘Primers and Books of Hours in England 1476-1542: Web Resources.’ 2004.
Henderson, J. Frank. ‘Queen Mary I and a Court Form of Bidding Prayer in Medieval England.’ 2003.
Henderson, J. Frank. ‘Queens, Nuns, Pregnant Women and Mothers: Consequences for Women of Henry VIII’s 1534 Decree on Bidding Prayers.’ 2003.
Henderson, J. Frank. ‘Sovereign and Pope in English Bidding Prayers Before and After 1534.’ 2003.
Hesbert, René-Jean. ‘The Sarum Antiphoner-Its Soures and Influence’. Journal of the Plainsong and Mediaeval Society III (1980), 49-55.
Holman, Hans-Jörgen, ‘Melismatic Tropes in the Responsories for Matins’, JAMS XVI-1 (Spring, 1963): 36-46.
Horn, Joyce M., ed. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300-1541: Volume 3, Salisbury Diocese. London: Institute of Historical Research, 1962.
Hoskins, Edgar. Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis, or Sarum and York Primers. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901.
Hughes, Andrew. ‘British Rhymed Offices’, Susan Rankin and David Hiley, eds, Music in the Medieval English Liturgy. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993: 275-8.
Hughes, Andrew (ed. Helsen and Getz). The Becket Offices: Paradigms for Liturgical Research. 2 Vols. Lions Bay, BC:The Institute of Medieval Music, 2014.
Hughes, Anselm, ed. Anglo-French Sequelae. Burnham, Bucks: The Plainsong & Mediaeval Music Society, 1934. Edited from the papers of the late Dr. Henry Marriott Bannister.
Huitson, Toby. Stairway to Heaven; The Functions of Medieval Upper Spaces. Oxford and Philadelphia: Oxbow Books, 2014.
Jones, William Henry. Fasti ecclesiae Sarisberiensis. Salisbury: Brown and Co, 1879.
Jones, William Henry. ‘On the Original Position of the High Altar in Salisbury Cathedral,’ The Sacristy. III (1881): 249-257. §
Joseph, James R. ‘Sarum Use and Disuse: A Study in Social and Liturgical History.’ Masters Thesis, University of Dayton, 2016. §
Keen, Laurence. Medieval Art and Architecture at Salisbury Cathedral. Leeds: Maney Publishing, 1996.
Kumler, Aden. ‘Imitatio rerum: Sacred Objects in the St. Giles’s Hospital Processional’ Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 44:3, Fall 2014: 469-502.
Legg, J. Wickham. Notes on the History of the Liturgical Colours. Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society I: 1881: 95-134. § R: London: John S. Leslie, 1882. (Neither of these sources, in their internet versions, reproduce the chart properly.)
—–. ‘Liturgical Notes on the Sherbourne Missal’, Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society IV (1900): 1-31. (and ‘Addendum, p. 234.) §
—–. ‘On Some Ancient Liturgical Customs Now Falling Into Disuse‘, Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society II (1886-90): 113-129.
‘Lay Folk’s Prayer Books’, The Church Quarterly Review IX (October 1879-January 1880): 429-448.
Liszka, Thomas R. ‘The Dragon in the “South English Legendary”: Judas, Pilate, and the “A(1)” Redaction.’ Modern Philology, C-1 (2002):50-59.
MacGregor, Alistair J. ‘Fire and Light in the Western Triduum: their use at Tenebrae and at the Paschal Vigil’. Durham theses, Durham University, 1989. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/6756/
Malden, Arthur Russell. The Canonization of Saint Osmund. Salisbury: Bennett Brothers, 1901. [R. N. Swanson, Catholic England (Manchester University Press, 1993:196) provides a translation of p. 142-143.]
Maskell, William. A Dissertation upon the Ancient Service Books of the Church of England. Chiswick: C. Wittingham, 1846.
Maskell, William. Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglicanae. 3 vols. London:William Pickering, 1846-47; 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1882.
McCann, Dom Justin. ‘A Sarum Missal : The Caldbeck Missal‘, Ampleforth Journal XXIV (1919): 1-10; 79-89. §.
McRoberts, David, ‘The Medieval Scottish Liturgy Illustrated by Surviving Documents’, Transactions of the Scottish Ecclesiological Society XV (1957): 22-40.
Messenger, Ruth Ellis. ‘Hymns and Sequences of the Sarum Use: An Approach to the Study of Medieval Hymnology. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, LIX (1928): 99-129.
‘Missale ad Usum insignis et praeclarae Ecclesiae Sarum’. [review] The Christian Remembrancer, XLIV (1862): 138-157.
Monti, James. A Sense of the Sacred: Roman Catholic Worship in the Middle Ages. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2012. Chapter 2 contains substantial discussion of the Sarum Mass.
Morgan, Nigel. ‘The Introduction of the Sarum Calendar into the Dioceses of England in the Thirteenth Century.’ Michael Prestwich, R. H. Britnell, and Robin Frame, eds., Thirteenth Century England VIII: Proceedings of the Durham Conference 1999. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2001. 179-. Indicates that the diffusion of the Sarum Rite in Britain occurred in the period 1200-1350 rather than in the fifteenth century as suggested or implied by Frere and Wordsworth, and perpetuated by Jeremy Catto in ‘Religious Change Under Henry V’ in Henry V: The Practice of Kingship, ed. G. L. Harriss, (Oxford, 1985):108.
Morgan, Nigel. ‘Marian Liturgy in Salisbury Cathedral’, The English Medieval Cathedral: Essays in Honour of Pamela Tudor-Craig. ed. J. Backhouse. Harlaxton, 2004: 89-111.
Morse, Herbert George. Notes on Ceremonial from the Antient English Office Books. London: Pickering and Chatto, 1888.
Neal, John Mason. Essays on Liturgiology and Church History. London: Saunder, Otley and Co., 1863.
Newman, John Henry. ‘The Roman Breviary as Embodying the Substance of the Devotional Services of the Catholic Church’, Tracts for the Times #75. 1836.
Nilson, Ben. Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1998.
“Old Sarum,” in Ancient and Historical Monuments in the City of Salisbury, (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1977), 1-24. British History Online, accessed October 3, 2021, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/salisbury/pp1-24.
[Patrick, John.] Reflections upon the Devotions of the Roman Church, 2nd. ed. (London, 1686). Includes some translations of Sarum texts, expecially from the books of hours.
Pfaff, Richard. New Liturgical Feasts in Later Medieval England. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
—-. The Liturgy in Medieval England: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
‘Pilgrimages to the Shrines of England’, The Quarterly Review CXXXIII (July and October, 1872):1-42. §
[Procter, Francis, and Christopher Wordsworth]. “Collations, Titles, Colophons and Descriptions of Some Editions of the Sarum Breviary.” n.d., lii. pp. appears to be a supplement to the edition of the Sarum Breviary. §
Raub, Jenifer. ‘Sarum Liturgical Printing in Tudor London‘. Ph.d. Thesis, Royal Holloway College, University of London, 2011.
Reames, Sherry. ‘Late-Medieval Efforts at Standardization and Reform in the Sarum Lessons for Saints’ Days’, Margaret Connolly and Linne R. Mooney, eds., Design and Distribution of Late Medieval Manuscripts in England. Woodbridge: Boydell for York Medieval Press, 2008: 91-117.
Reames, Sherry. ‘Lectionary Revisions in Sarum Breviaries and the Origins of the Early Printed Editions’. Journal of the Early Book Society IX (2006): 95-115.
Reames, Sherry L. Saints’ Legends in Medieval Sarum Breviaries. Woodbridge: Boydell for York Medieval Press, 2021.
Reeve, Matthew. Thirteenth-century Wall Painting of Salisbury Cathedral: Art, Liturgy, and Reform. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2008.
Reeve follows W. H. Jones, on the basis of the iconography, is asserting that the original position of the high altar at Salisbury Cathedral was in at the crossing of the eastern transept, below the ‘majestas’. While this idea does seem to be implied by the iconography, the Sarum liturgy requires that the high altar be located to the east of the sanctuary step. I would agree with the notion provided by James Smith Pierce in From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1998):169, that ‘The twelve signs of the zodiac . . . together with emblems of the Labors of the Months, suggest the omnipresence and omnipotence of God throughout time and space and lend universal significance to the other subjects represented near them’.
William Renwick, ‘ “I will lay me down in peace”: Singing Sarum Compline’, Church Music Quarterly, March 2022: 45-47.
Renwick, William. ‘Rhymed Offices in the Use of Sarum.’ Kate Helsen, ed. New Research on Old Chant/La recherche nouvelle du plain-chant ancien. Kitchener Ontario: The Institute of Sacred Music, 2018: 79-110.
Renwick, William. ‘The Sarum Rite : Past . . . Present . . . Future.’ Karim and Swanson, eds. Chant and Culture/Plain-chant et culture. Lions Bay:The Institute of Sacred Music, 2014:263-286.
Robertson, Anne Walters. ‘Benedicamus Domino: the Unwritten Tradition’, JAMS XLI-1 (1988):1-62.
Rock, Daniel. The Church of Our Fathers as seen in St. Osmund’s Rite for the Cathedral of Salisbury. 3 vols. London: C. Dolman, 1849-1854. New edition, ed. G. W. Hart and W. H. Frere. London: John Murray, 1905. Old edition: Volume 1. Volume 2. Volume 3 Part 1. Volume 3 Part 2. New edition: Volume 1. Volume 2. Volume 3. Volume 4.
St. John Hope, W. H. ‘On the English Liturgical colours’. Transactions of the St. Paul’s Ecclesiological Society II (1886-90): 233-272. § (This source, in its internet versions, fails to reproduce the chart properly.)
St. John Hope, W. H. ‘The Sarum Consuetudinary and its Relation to the Cathedral Church of Old Sarum’, Archaeologia 68 (1916): 111-26.
Salisbury, Matthew Cheung. ‘Rethinking the Uses of Sarum and York: A Historiographical Essay’, Helen Gittos and Sarah Hamilton, eds. Understanding Medieval Liturgy: Essays in Interpretation. Routledge, 2015.
Salisbury, Matthew Cheung. The Secular Liturgical Office in Late Medieval England. Turnhout: Brepols, 2015. Also available in pdf format (thesis)
Salisbury, Matthew Cheung. “Stability and variation in Office chants of the Sarum : Sanctorale“. Plainsong and Medieval Music XXVII (2018):1-26.
Salisbury, Matthew Cheung. Worship in Medieval England. Leeds: Arc Humanities Press, 2018.
Sandon, Nick, Salisbury [‘Sarum’], Use of., New Grove.
Schell, Sarah. ‘The Office of the Dead in England : Image and Music in the Book of Hours and Related Texts, c. 1250- c. 1500.’ Ph. D. thesis, University of St. Andrews, 2011.
Scott, George Gilbert, ‘A Tractate upon the Original Position of the High Altar in Salisbury Cathedral’, The Sacristy III (1881): 92-107. §
Sheingorn, Pamela. The Easter Sepulchre in England. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1987. pp. 347-352 contain transcriptions of several MS accounts of the Sarum Depositio and Elevatio, but strangely omits mention of the Salisbury Easter Sepuchre itself.
Slocum, Kay Brainerd, Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.
Smith, F. E. Gilliat, ‘The Cultus of the Blessed Virgin as contained in the Sarum Breviary’. The Dublin Review 109 (October, 1891): 374-394. §
Smith, F. E. Gilliat, ‘The Ancient Offices of Some of England’s Saints’. The Dublin Review 114 (January, 1894): 22-40. §
Smith, William, The Use of Hereford: The Sources of a Medieval English Diocesan Rite. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015.
Steiner, Ruth. ‘The Responsories and Prosa for St. Stephen’s Day at Salisbury’, The Musical Quarterly 56 (1970): 162-82.
Stephens, Denis. ‘Music in Honor of St. Thomas of Canterbury.’ The Musical Quarterly LVI-3 (1970): 311-348.
Stuart, Sydney N. ‘Music for Holy Week and Easter in Medieval Britain’ (unpublished dissertation), University of Exeter, 1977.
Tatton-Brown, Tim. ‘Canterbury and the architecture of pilgrimage shrines in England’, Colin Morris and Peter Roberts, eds., Pilgrimage: The English Experience from Becket to Bunyan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 90-107.
Tatton-Brown, Tim. Salisbury Cathedral. London: Scala Arts Publishers, 2010.
Tatton-Brown, Tim. ‘The Burial Places of St. Osmund’, Spire (65th Annual Report of the Friends of Salisbury Cathedral (1999)), 19-25.
Taunton, Ethelred. The Little Office of Our Lady. London: John Bale, 1903. §
Thomson, Rodney M. ‘The Music for the Office of St. Edmund King and Martyr’, Music & Letters 65 (1984):189-93.
Unterseher, Cody C., American Sarum. Bronxville New York: Christ Church Press, 2010. §
Urquhart, Richard. Ceremonies of the Sarum Missal: A Careful Conjecture. T. & T. Clarke, Nov. 2020.
Walker, Charles. An Order for Matins and Evensong. London: J. T. Hayes, 1877. §
(Contains a ‘Brief Ceremonial’ which is of considerable use in developing a practical application of Sarum ceremonial practices.)
Walker, Charles. Plain Suggestions for a Ceremonial after Sarum Use. London: J. T. Hayes, 1867.
This small book interprets Sarum ceremonial for BCP use.
Walpole, Arthur Sumner, ed. Early Latin Hymns: With Introduction and Notes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922. §.
Whitworth, Ben. ‘Can we reconstruct the medieval liturgy of St. Magnus?’, Scottish Music Review V (2019):139-164.
Williams, Thomas J. ‘Anglican Versions of the Breviary’, Cowley. available at Project Canterbury.
A Concise history of English translations of both the Sarum and the Roman Breviaries in the period 1627-1943.
Williamson, Magnus. ‘Affordable splendour: editing, printing and marketing the Sarum Antiphoner (1519-1520)’, Renaissance Studies XXVI-1 (2012):60-87.
Woods, Isobel, ‘ “Our Awin Scottis Use”: Chant Usage in Medieval Scotland’, Journal of the Royal Musical Association CXII (1986-1987): 21-37.
Woods Preece, Isobel ‘Our awin Scottis use’: music in the Scottish church up to 1603. ed. Salley Harper. Glasgow, Aberdeen: Universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen, 2000.
Wordsworth, Christopher. Notes on Mediaeval Services in England. London: Thomas Baker, 1898.
Wordsworth, Christopher, and Henry Littlehales. The Old Service-Books of the English Church. London: Methuen & Co. 1904 §.
Wordsworth, Christopher, ed. The Tracts of Clement Maydeston, with the Remains of Caxton’s Ordinale. London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1894.
8. Other Chant and Liturgy Sources
The Anglican Breviary. Mount Sinai, Long Island, New York: The Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation Inc. 1955.
Barnes, Ralph, ed. Liber Pontificalis of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter. Exeter: William Reobersts, 1847.
Bradshaw, Henry, ed. Lincoln Cathedral Statutes. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1897.
Burgess, Francis. The English Gradual. Part 1. The Plainchant of the Ordinary. Sixth Edition. London: the Plainchant Publications Committee, 1955.
Collette, A. Histoire du Bréviare de Rouen. Rouen: L. Megard, 1902.
Dearmer, Percy (with Walter Howard Frere and Samuel Mumford Taylor), The English Liturgy from the Book of Common Prayer with Additional Collects Epistles and Gospels. London: Rivingtons, 1920. (The lessons have been pointed for chanting by W. H. Frere.)
Dalton, John Neale, ed. The Collegiate Church of Ottery St. Mary, being the Ordinacio et Statuta . . . . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1917.
Dalton, J. N. and G. H. Doble, eds. Ordinale Exon. 4 vols. London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1901-1940.
Douglas, Charles Winfred. The Monastic Diurnal Noted. Kenosha, Wisconsin, 1952.
Douglas, Charles Winfred. The Monastic Diurnal Noted. Volume II Kenosha, Wisconsin, 1960.
Douglas, Charles Winfred. The Plainsong Psalter. New York: H. W. Gray, 1936.
Frere, W. H. Bibliotheca Musico-Liturgica. A Descriptive Hand List of the Musical and Latin-Liturgical MSS. of the Middle Ages Preserved in the Libraries of Great Britain and Ireland. 4 fascicles in 2 volumes. London: B. Quaritch, 1894, 1901, 1930, 1932 (reprint Hildesheim 1967).
Harper, John. The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the Tenth to the Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Henderson, William George, ed. Liber pontificalis Chr. Baingbridge archiepiscopi Eboracensis. Durham: Andrews, 1875.
Henderson, William George, ed. Manuale et processionale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis. Durham: Andrews, 1875.
Lee, Frederick George. ed. The Directorium Anglicanum. 2nd. ed. London: Thomas Bosworth, 1865.
Legg, L. G. Wickham, ed. English coronation records. Westminister: Constable, 1901.
McKay, W. D. ed. Breviarium Bothanum. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1900.
[Edition of a Scottish Ms. Breviary that largely follows Sarum Use.]
Monastic Breviary Matins. Tymawr, Lydart, Monmouth: Society of the Sacred Cross, 1961.
[Monks of Solesmes] The Liber Usualis. Tournai: Desclee Co. 1961. §
[Monks of Solesmes] Liber Hymnarius. Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1983.
[Monks of Solesmes] Processionale Monasticum.  New Edition, Solesmes: E Typorgrapheo Sancti Petri, 1983.
[Morse, H. G.] Notes on Ceremonial. London: Pickering, 1882. §
Neale, John Mason. Collected Hymns, Sequences, and Carols of John Mason Neale. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1914. §
[Nuns of the Abbey of Our Lady of Consolation, Stanbrook] ed. Charles Francis Brown. The Roman Breviary. 4 Vols. London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1937.
Ott, Carolus. Offertoriale sive versus offertoriorum cantus Gregoriani. Paris, Tournai, Rome: Desclée, 1935. §
Pfaff, Richard W. The Liturgy in Medieval England: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Pristas, Lauren. Collects of the Roman Missals: A Comparative Study of the Sundays in Proper Seasons before and after the Second Vatican Council. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2013.
Purchas, John, ed. Directorium Anglicanorum. London: Joseph Masters, 1858.
The Roman Catholic Daily Missal 1962. Kansas City, Missouri: Angelus Press, 2004.
Reynolds, Herbert Edward. The use of Exeter Cathedral, according to John de Grandisson, Bishop of the See 1327-1367 : abstract of Chapter Acts and other documents illustrating the history of the Church and Diocese of Exeter 1380-1660. London: Church Printing Co., 1891. §
Reynolds, Herbert Edward. Wells Cathedral: its foundation, constitutional history and statutes. 1881. §
Roper, Sally Elizabeth. Medieval English Benedictine Liturgy. Ph. D. diss., Oxford University, 1988.
Saint Dunstan’s Plainsong Psalter. Glendale, Colorado: The Lancelot Andrewes Press, 2002. This work is based upon that of Charles Winfred Douglas.
Salisbury, Matthew Cheung. Worship in Medieval England. Leeds: ARC Medieval Press, 2018.
Sandhofe, Holger Peter, ed. Nocturnale Romanum. Heidelberg: Hartker Verlag, 2002.
Shipley, Orby. Ritual of the Altar. Second Edition. London: Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer, 1878.
Smith, F. E. Gilliat. ‘Two Mediaeval Christmas Offices’, The Dublin Review 116 (1895): 46-62.
Walker, Charles. The Ritual Reason Why. London: A. R. Mowbray & Co. Limited, 1960. (Contains some explanations of Sarum ceremonies.)
Dreves, Guido Maria ed., Clemens Blume, ed. Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi. 55 vols. Lepzig: Fue’s Verlag, 1886-1922). (AH) §.
Harper, John. The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Hiley, David. Western Plainchant: A Handbook. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993 §.
Holmes, Stephen Mark. ‘Catalogue of liturgical books and fragments
in Scotland before 1560’, The Innes Review 62.2 (2011): 127–212.
Hughes, Andrew. Late Medieval Liturgical Offices: Resources for Electronic Research : Texts. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1994. (LMLO)
Julian, John D. A Dictionary of Hymnology. New York: Scribner’s, 1892. §.
Migne, Jacques-Paul. Patrologia Latina. 217 vols. 1841-65. (PL) §.
Muratori, Ludovico Antonio. Liturgia Romana vetus. 2 Vols. Venice, 1748.
de Voraigne, Jacobus. The Golden Legend. trans. William Granger Lyon. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Wilkins, David, ed. Consilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae . . . 4 vols. London: Gosling, 1737.
Wilson, H. A. A Classified Index to the Leonine, Gelasian and Gregorian Sacramentaries. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press, 1892. §.